Ethnic Differences with Abuse during Pregnancy
Publication Date:May 2001
This research examined what may be the earliest link in the chain of violence, the prenatal and perinatal developmental period, with mothers who experienced violence during their pregnancies. One hundred and sixty-eight mothers reporting abuse and their newborn infants from a sample of 1,226 women recruited in the Boston City Hospital Maternal Health Habits Project were studied. The results revealed that the newborns of Caucasian mothers had an increase in the level of behavioral problems of crying, hyperactivity, central nervous system depression and respiratory distress though not significantly. For Black and Hispanic mothers there were less baby problems with self-reported abuse. Several explanations for these findings are offered.
Amaro, H. Fried, L. E., Cabral, H. & Zuckerman, B. (1990). Violence during pregnancy and substance use. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 80(5), 575-579.
Anderson, R. N., Kochanek K. D., & Murphy, S. L. (1997). Report of final mortality statistics, 1995. Monthly vital statistics report 45, 11(2 Suppl).
Apgar, V. (1953). A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 32, 260-267.
Blechschmidt, E. (1981). Human being from the very first. In Hilgers, Horan and Mall (Eds.), New Perspectives on Human Abortion. Frederick, Md: University Publications of America.
Bower, G. R. (1989). The Rational Infant: Learning in Infancy. San Francisco, Freedman.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1999). Life in the womb: Dangers and opportunities. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14 (1-2), 31-43.
Farrington, D. (1991). Antisocial personality from childhood to adulthood. The psychologist, 4, 389-94.
Fifer, W.P., & Moon, C. (1995). The effects of fetal experience with sound. In J. P. Lecanuet, W. Fifer, N. A. Krasnegor, & W. Smotherman (Eds.). Fetal development: A psychobiological perspective. (pp. 351-368). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Kandel, E. & Mednick, S. A. (1991). Perinatal complications predict violent offending. Criminology, 29, 519-529.
LaDoux, J. E. (1986). Neurobiology of emotion. In J. E. LeDoux & W. Hirst (Eds.), Mind and brain (pp. 301-354). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lecanuet, J. P., Fifer, W., Krasnegor, N. A., & Smotherman, W. (1995). Fetal development: A psychobiological perspective. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review 10, 1-41.
Mungas, D. (1983). An empirical analysis of specific syndromes of violent behavior. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 354-361.
Noonan, J. T. (1983). The experience of pain by the unborn. In J. L. Hensley (Ed.), The Zero People. Pp. 141-56. Ann Arbor: Servant Books.
Olweus, D., Block, J. & Kadke-Yarrow, M. (Eds.) (1986). Development of antisocial and pro-social behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Schwarz, S.M., Muller, K.L., McKean, E.A., & Lang, E.L. (1994). 1984-87 Boston City Hospital Maternal Health Habits Project: A user's guide to the machine-readable files and documentation (Data Set 10-12). Los Altos, CA: Sociometrics Corporation, Maternal Drug Abuse Data Archive.
Teicher, M. H., & Blass, E. M. (1977). First suckling response in the newborn albino fat: the roles of olfaction and amniotic fluid. Science, 198, 635-636.
Widom, C. S. (1989). The cycles of violence. Science 244, 160-66.
1 Bobbi Jo Lyman, Ph.D.
1 This paper is based on a presentation made at the 13th Congress of the International Society of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine in Cagliari, Italy (Summer 2000). Bobbi Jo Lyman, Ph.D. may be reached at 3202 Pine Road, Bremerton, Washington 98319. Phone: (306) 479-4147 Fax: (360) 479-01497 email: firstname.lastname@example.org