The Impact of Prenatal Psychology on Society and Culture
Publication Date:March 2002
As a result of the research conducted by prenatal psychology into psychological and emotional experiences before and during birth, a whole new dimension has been added to our life-history. We are now able to recognise that human cultural artefacts and activities have to some extent always expressed prenatal and perinatal feelings and by doing so have familiarised us with an alien world by allowing us to "rediscover" the microcosm of our prenatal life in the macrocosm of the world. This is illustrated using several examples, such as the mythical ideas about kings (prenatal feeling of power), the holy trees (placenta) and the holy chambers (uterine space), among others.
Adler, A. (1907/1965) Studie liber die Minderwertigheit von Organen (Study of organ inferiority). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Bloch, M. (1998) Die wundertatigen Konige (The healing power of the kings). Munich: Beck.
DeMause, L. (1996). Restaging fetal traumas in war and social violence. Int. J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 8(2), 171-212.
Dowling, T. (1990) The psychological significance of fetal skin activity. Int. J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 2(2), 145-154.
Eliade, M. (1986) Kosmos and Geschichte (Kosmos and history). Frankfurt: Insel.
Evertz, K., & Janus, L. (Eds.)(2002). Kunstanalyse (The analysis of art). Heidelberg: Mattes.
Ferenczi, S. (1993) Entwicklungsstufen des Wirklichkeitssinnes (Developmental stages of the sense for reality). In: Balint, M. (Ed.). Bausteine der Psycholanalyse (Basics of psychoanalysis). Bern: Huber.
Freud, S. (1914/1964). Zur Einfuhrung des NarziBmus (Introduction to narcisism). Frankfurt: Fischer.
Harris, M. (1974). Our kind: Who we are, where we are coming from and where we are going. New York: Harper Collins.
Irving, M. (1989). Natalism as pre- and perinatal metaphor. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology 4(2), 83-110.
Janus, L. (1991). The expression of pre- and perinatal experience in cultural phenomena. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 5(3), 203-220.
Janus, L. (1993). The relationship of pre- and perinatal psychology to 20th century art, literature and philosophy. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 8(2), 129-147.
Janus, L. (1997/2001). Enduring effects of prenatal experience. (English translation from the original German publication). Heidelberg: Mattes.
Kantorowicz, E. (1957). The king's two bodies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Key, E. (1902/2000) Dos Jahrhundert des Kindes (The century of the child). Weinheim: Beltz.
Morris, D. (1994). The human zoo. London: Vintage.
Rank, O. (1924/1993). The trauma of birth. New York: Dover.
Ludwig Janus, M.D.*
* This paper was presented at the 2001 International Congress of APPPAH when Dr. Janus received the Thomas R. Verny Award for Outstanding Contributions to Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology. Dr. Janus is President of the International Society of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine (ISPPM). Author's address: Dr. med. Ludwig Janus, Köpfelweg 52, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany. Email: email@example.com