The Development of Sensory Systems During the Prenatal Period
Publication Date:March 2007
This paper will examine the anatomy and physiology of the development of the seven senses in utero. On the basis of this knowledge clinicians will be better able to promote more peaceful as well as enriched prenatal environments and plan interventions for children at risk for later developmental difficulties.
Anand, J.S. & Hickey, P.R. (1987). Pain and its effect on the developing fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(21), 1321-1329.
Ayres, A.J. (1979). Sensory integration and the child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Elliot, L. (1999). What's going on in there? How the brain and mind develop in the first year of life. New York: Bantam Books.
Hartman, D. & Zimberoff, D. (2002). Memory access to our earliest influences. Journal of Heart-Centered Therapies, 5(2), 3-63.
Hill, S., DeBellis, M., Keshavan, M., Lowers, L., Shen, S., & Pitts, T. (2001). Right amygdala volume in adolescent and young adult offspring from families at high risk for developing alcoholism, Biological Psychiatry, 49, 894-905.
Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., & Jessel, T. (2000). Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Larson, W. (2001). Human embryology. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone.
Lecanuet, J., Granier-Defeere, C., & Busnel, M. (1995). Human fetal auditory perception. In Fetal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. Lecanuet, J., Pifer, W., Krasnegor, N., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 239-262.
O'Rahilly, R. & Muller, F. (1996). Human embryology & teratology. Davis, CA: WileyLiss.
Sameroff, A. (2000). Developmental systems and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 297-312.
Schaal, B., Orgeur, P., & Rognon, C. (1995). Odor sensing in the human fetus: Anatomical, functional and chemoecological bases. In Fetal Development: A Psychobiological Perspective. Lecanuet, J., Fifer, W., Krasnegor, N., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schepers, M. & Benson, J. (2006). Understanding Sensory Integration. OT Practice, August, 14, 2006.
Smotherman, W. (1995). Tracing developmental trajectories into the prenatal period. In J.P. Lecanuet, Krasnegor, W., Norman, A., & Smotherman, W. (Eds.), Fetal Development: A Psychological Perspective. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Thomson, P. (2004). The impact of trauma on the embryo and fetus: An application of the Diathesis-Stress Model and the Neurovulnerability-Neurotoxicity Model." Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 79(Fall 2004), 9-63.
Truby, H. (1975). Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech, and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language, 27(A special issue of WORD), parts 1-3.
Tsiaras, W. (2002). From conception to birth: A life unfolds. New York: Doubleday.
Williamson, G. & Anzalone, M. (2001). Sensory integration and self-regulation in infants and toddlers: Helping very young children interact with their environment. Washington D.C.: Zero to Three.