The Sentient Prenate: What Every Parent Should Know
Publication Date:January 2011
Abstract: In the 1980’s parents in large numbers were first introduced to the sensitive, perceptive, conscious, and cognitive prenate. This paper summarizes the evidence from major research findings, demonstrating that prenates are 1) sensitive and aware, 2) learn and dream, and 3) are social and communicative. Well-designed experimental programs in prenatal enrichment confirm the intelligence and receptivity of womb babies. A closing section describes the special resources now available to parents who want to deliberately enhance prenatal bonding and communication.
Aivanhov, O. M. (1982). Education begins before birth. (Trans, from French). Santa Clarita, CA: Editions Prosveta; Also see: Aivanhov, O. M. (1969). The role of the mother during gestation.
Ando, Y. & Hattori, H. (1970). Effects of intense noise during fetal life upon postnatal adaptability. J. of the Acoustical Society of America, 47, 1128-1130.
Anand, K J. S. & Aynsley-Green, A. (1985). Metabolic and endocrine effects of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm neonate: Are there implications for further improvement in postoperative outcome? Modern Problems of Paediatrics, 23, 143-157.
Anand, K. J. S. & Hickey, P. R. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New England J. of Medicine, 317, 1321-1329.
Baker, R. A (1978). Technologic intervention in obstetrics. Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal, 5, 2.
Birnholz, J., Stephens, J. C, & Faria, M. (1978). Fetal movement patterns: A possible means of defining neurologic development milestones in utero. American J. Roentology, 130, 537-540.
Birnholz, J. C. (1981). The development of human fetal eye movement patterns. Science, 213, 679-681.
Blass, E. M., Ganchrow, J. R. & Steiner, J. E. (1984). Classical conditioning in newborn humans 2-48 hours of age. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 223-235.
Blum, T., Dittman, R., Schulz, J. & Walker, J. (1993). Prenatal interventions and human proto development. In T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning and bonding, (pp. 107-132). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.
Bower, T. G. R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborns. Infant Behavior & Development, 15(2), 265-269.
Busnel, M-C, Granier-Deferre, C. & Lecanuet, J. P (1992). Fetal audition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 662 (Oct. 20), 118-134.
Butler, N. C. (1989). Infants, pain, and what health care professionals should want to know now: An issue of epistemology and ethics. Bioethics, 3(3), 181-209.
Carlson, D. B. & Labarba, R. C. (1979). Maternal emotionality during pregnancy and reproductive outcome: A review of the literature. Int. Journal of Behavior Development, 2, 343-376.
Carpenter, G (1974). Mother's face and the newborn. New Scientist, 61, 742-744.
Cernoch, J. M. & Porter, R. H. (1985). Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants. Child Development, 56(6), 1593-1598.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1980). Reliability of birth memories: Evidence from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Paper presented to the Amer. Soc. of Clinical Hypnosis, Min neapolis, Nov. 15; first published in Journal of American. Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysis, 1(2), 89-98 (1986).
Chamberlain, D. B. (1987). The cognitive newborn: A scientific update. British J. of Psychotherapy 4(1), 30-71.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). The mind of the newborn: Increasing evidence of competence. In P. G. Fedor- Freybergh & M.L.V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 5-22). Lancaster, UK: Parthenon.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). Babies Remember Birth. Los Angeles: J.P Tarcher
Chamberlain, D. B. (1989). Babies remember pain Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(4),297-310.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1992a). Is there intelligence before birth? Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 6(3), 217-237.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1992b). Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. International J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(2) (Oct), 161-177.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1993). Prenatal intelligence. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 9-31). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.
Chayen, B., Tajani, N, Verma, U. L. & Gordon, G (1986). Fetal heart rate changes and uterine activity during coitus. Acta Obstet. Gyn. Scandinauica, 65, 853-855.
Condon, W. & Sander, L. (1974). Synchrony demonstrated between movements of the neonate and adult speech. Child Development, 45, 456-462.
Connolly, J. A & Cullen, J. H. (1983). Maternal stress and the origins of health status. InJ. D. Call, E. Galenson, & R L Tyson, (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry (pp. 273-281). New York Basic Books.
Cooper, R & Aslin, R. N. (1990). Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Development, 61(5), 1584-1595.
Correia, I. G. (1987). Communication in the motherly womb. Master's Degree Thesis. Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro.
Correia, I. G., Leader, L.. & Clark, I. (1992). Can television influence fetal behavior? International J. Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4, Congress Supplement 1, p. 22.
Cowart, B. J. (1981). Development of taste perception in humans: Sensitivity and preference throughout the life span. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 43-73.
Crowell, D H., Blurton, L. B., Kobayashi, L. R., McFarland, J. L., & Yang, R. K (1976). Studies in early infant learning: Classical conditioning of the neonatal heart rate. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 12(A), 373-397.
David, H. P, Dytrych, Z., Matejcek, Z., & Schuller, V. (1988). Born unwanted: Developmental effects of denied abortion. Prague: Czechoslovak Medical Press; New York: Springer.
DeCasper, A. & Spence, M. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences human newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133-150.
DeSnoo, K. (1937). Das trinkende kind im uterus. Monatsschrift fur Geburtshilfe & Gyn. 105, 88-97.
Diamond, M. (1989). Enriching heredity: The impact of environment on the anatomy of the brain. New York: Free Press.
Emde, R., McCartney, R. & Harmon, R. (1971). Neonatal smiling in REM states. IV. Premature study. Child Development, 42, 1657-1661.
Feijoo, J. (1981). Le foetus Pierre et le loup: on une approche originale de l'audition prenatale humaine. In E. Herbinet & M-C Busnel (Eds.), L'aube des sens (pp. 199-213). Paris: Stock.
Feldman, Y (1981). The problems of intrauterine anxiety: Its consequences and resolutions. Modern Psychoanalysis, 6, 183-185.
Feldmar, A. (1979). The embryology of consciousness: What is a normal pregnancy? In D. Mall, & W. Watts, (Eds.), The psychological aspects of abortion (pp. 15-24). Washington D. C: Univ. Pub. Amer.
Ferreira, A. J. (1965). Emotional factors in the prenatal environment: A review. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 141(1), 108-118.
Field, T, Woodson, R., Cohen, D, Greenberg, R., Garcia, R., & Collins, K. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expressions by term and preterm neonates. Infant Behavior & Develop. 6, 485-490.
FIRSTART La Escuela en el vientre materno. Ave. Aragon 36 esc. 2fl, 34a, 46021 Valencia, Espana.
Freed, F. (1927). Report of a case of vagitus uterinus. Amer. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 14, 87-89.
Freeman, M. (1987). Is infant learning egocentric or duocentric? Was Piaget wrong? Pre& Perinatal Psychology Journal., 2(1), 25-42.
Gabriel, M. (1992). Voices from the womb. Lower Lake, CA: Aslin.
Garland, K. (1978/1992). Physiological effects of neonatal management. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7(1), 73-84.
Goodlin, R. C. & Schmidt, W (1972). Human fetal arousal levels as indicated by heartrate recordings. American J Ob I Gyn, 114(5), 613-621.
Goodlin, R. C., Schmidt, W, & Creavy, D. C. (1972). Uterine tension and fetal heart rate during maternal orgasm. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 39(1), 125-127.
Goodlin, R. C. (1979). Care of the fetus. New York: Masson
Gottfried, A. W & Gaiter, J. L. (Eds.) (1985). Infant stress under intensive care: Environmental neonatology. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Harrison, H. (1987). Pain relief for premature infants. Twins (July-Aug) pp. 10-11.
Harrison, H. (1990). Personal correspondence, Sep. 1, 1990.
Hepper, P. G. (1988). Fetal "soap" addiction. Lancet (Letter), June 11, 1988, 1347-1348.
Hepper, P. G. (1991). An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. Irish J.Psy. 12, 95-107.
Hepper, P G. (1992a). Fetal psychology: An embryonic science. In J. G. Nijhuis (EkI.), Fetal behavior: Developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Hepper, P G. (1992b). An interface between psychology and medicine: The antenatal detection of handicap. In R. Klimek, (Ed.), Pre- & Perinatal Psycho-Medicine (pp. 133-138). DWN Dream: Cracow.
Hill, L. M., Piatt, L. D, & Manning, F A. (1979). Immediate effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing and gross body movement. American J. Ob I Gyn, 135, 689-690.
Hitchcock, D. A., Sutphen, J. H., & Scholly, T. A. (1980). Demonstration of fetal penile erection in utero. Perinatology I Neonatology, 4, 59-60.
Humphrey, T. (1978). Function of the nervous system during prenatal life. In U Stave (Ed.), Physiology of the Perinatal Period, Vol 2. (pp. 751-796). New York: Plenum Medical.
Hunt, E. & Agnoli, F (1991). The Whorfian hypothesis: A cognitive psychology perspective. Psychological Review, 98(3), 377-389.
Ianniruberto, A. & Tajani, E. (1981). Ultrasonographic study of fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology, 5, 175-181.
Insel, T R., Kinsley, C. H., Mann, P. E., & Bridges, R. S. (1990). Prenatal stress has longterm effects on brain opiate receptors. Brain Research, 511, 93-97.
Kato, T, Takahashi, E., Sawada, K., Kobayashi, N, Watanabe, T, & Ishii, T (1983). A computer analysis of infant movements synchronized with adult speech. Pediatric Research, 17, 625-628.
Kisilevsky, B. S. & Muir, D. W. (1991). Human fetal and subsequent newborn responses to sound and vibration. Infant Behavior & Development, 14(1), 1-26.
Klaus, M. H. & Klaus, P H. (1985). The amazing newborn. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Korner, A. F, Lane, N M., Berry K A, & Rho, J. M. (1990). Sleep enhanced and irritabihty reduced in preterm infants: Differential efficacy of three types of waterbeds. J. Developmental & BehavioralPediatrics, 11(5), 240-246.
Kramer, L. I. & Pierpont, M. E. (1976). Rocking waterbeds and auditory stimuli to enhance growth of preterm infants. J. Pediatrics, 88, 297-299.
Kuhlman, K A., Burns, K A., Depp, R., & Sabbagha, R. E. (1988). Ultrasonic imaging of normal fetal response to external vibratory acoustic stimulation. American J. Ob / Gyn, 158(1), 47 '-51.
Laibow, R. (1988). Prenatal and perinatal experience and developmental impairment. In: P. Fedor-Frey- bergh, & M. L. V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology & medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 295-308). Lancaster, England: Parthenon.
Laughlin, C. D. (1989). The roots of enculturation: The challenge of pre- and perinatal psychology for ethnological theory and research. Anthropologica, 31, 135-178.
Leader, L. R., Bailie, P, Martin, B. & Vermeiden, E. (1982). The assessment and significance of habituation to a repeated stimulus by the human fetus. Early Human Development, 7, 211-219.
Liley, A W (1972). The foetus as a personality. Australian and New Zealand J. of Psychiatry, 6(2), 99-105.
Lipsitt, L. P. (1969). Learning capacities of the human infant. In R. J. Robinson, (Ed.), Brain and early behavior development in the fetus and infant (pp. 227-249). London: Academic Press.
Luddington-Hoe, S. & Golant, S. (1993). Kangaroo care: The best you can do to help your preterm infant. New York: Bantam.
MacFarlane, A. (1975). Olfaction in the development of social preferences in the human neonate. Parent-Infant Interactions. CIBA Foundation Symposium #33, 103-113.
Madison, L. S., Adubato, S. A. & Madison, J. K., Nelson, R.B., Anderson, R., Erickson, J., Kuss, L., & Goodlin, R.C. (1986). Fetal response decrement: True habituation? J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 7(1), 14-20.
Manning, F A, Piatt, L. D. & Lemay, M. (1977). Effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing movements. British Medical Journal, 2, 1582-1583.
Manrique, B., Contasti, M., Alvarado, M. ?., Zypman, M., Palma, N, Ierrobino, M. T., Ramirez, L, & Carini, D. (1993). Nurturing parents to stimulate their children from prenatal stage to three years of age. In T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 153-186). Berlin : Leonardo.
Marnie, E. (1983/1988). Love Start: Prebirth bonding. Santa Monica, CA.: Hay House.
Meltzoff, A. N & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, Oct 7, 75-78.
Meltzoff, A. N (1985). The roots of social and cognitive development: Models of man's original nature. In T M. Field, & NA. Fox (Eds.), Social perception in infants (pp. 130). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.
Meltzoff, A N (1990). Towards a developmental cognitive science: The implications of cross-modal matching and imitation for the development of representation and memory in infancy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 1-37.
Mistretta, C. M. & Bradley, R. M. (1975). Taste and swallowing in utero: A discussion of fetal sensory function. British Medical Bulletin, 11, 80-84.
Montagu, A. (1962). Prenatal influences (Chap. 9). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.
Moon, C. & Fifer, W. R (1990). Syllables as signals for 2-day-old infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 13(3), 377-390.
Mosser, C. (1989). Effet physiologique des stimulations sonores chez le premature. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Paris XII.
Neldam, S. & Pedersen, J. F (1980). Fetal heart rate response to amniocentesis in early pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 8, 209-212.
Nijhuis, J. G. (Ed.) (1992). Fetal behaviour: Developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
OMara, R (Ed.) (1993). Circumcision: The rest of the story. Santa Fe, NM: Mothering Magazine.
Owen, M. E. & Todt, E. H. (1984). Pain in infancy: Neonatal reaction to a heel lance. Pain, 20(1), 77-86.
Panneton, R. K. (1985). Prenatal auditory experience with melodies: Effects on postnatal auditory preferences in human newborns. PhD. Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. (Diss. Abstracts B: 3984.)
Panthuraamphorn, C. (1993). Prenatal infant stimulation program. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding (pp. 187-220). Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo.
Papousek, H. & Papousek, M. (1992). Beyond emotional bonding: The role of preverbal communication in mental growth and health. Infant Mental Health J., 13(1), 43-53.
Peiper, A. (1925). Sinnesemp findungen des kindes vor seinergebert. Monatsschrift fur kinderheilkunde, 29, 237-241; cited in Hepper, P. G. (1989), Foetal learning: Implications for psychiatry? British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 289-293.
Peleg, D. & Goldman, J. A. (1980). Fetal heart rate acceleration in response to light stimulation as a clinical measure of fetal well-being: A preliminary report. J. Perinatal Medicine, 8(1), 38-41.
Piontelli, A. (1987). Infant observation from before birth. International J. of PsychoAnalysis, 68, 453-463.
Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: An observational and psychoanalytic study. London and New York: Routledge.
Porter, F L., Miller, R H. & Marshall, R. E. (1986). Neonatal pain cries: Effect of circumcision on acoustic features of perceived urgency. Child Development, 57(3), 790-802.
Porter, R. H. (1991). Human reproduction and the mother-infant relationship: The role of odors. In T. V. Getchell (Ed.), Smell and taste in health and disease (pp. 429-442). New York: Raven Press.
Porter, R. H., Makin, J. W, Davis, L. B. & Christensen, K M. (1992). Breast-fed infants respond to olfactory cues from their own mother and unfamiliar lactating females. Infant Behavior & Development, 25(1), 85-93.
Ray, E. & Martinez, H. (1984). Rational handling of the premature child. Report to UNICEF. New York: UNICEF
Reissland, N (1988). Neonatal imitation in the first hour of life: Observations in rural Nepal. Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 464-469.
Roberts, A B., Griffen, D., Mooney, R, Cooper, D. J., & Campbell, S. (1980). Fetal activity in 100 normal third trimester pregnancies. British J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 87, 480-484.
Roffwarg, H. P, Muzio, J. N, & Dement, W. C. (1966). Ontogenetic development of the human sleep- dream cycle. Science, 152, 604-619.
Romberg, R (1985). Circumcision: The painful dilemma. So. Hadley, MA Bergin & Garvey.
Ron, M. & Polishuk, W. Z. (1976). The response of the fetal heart rate to amniocentesis. British Journal Ob I Gyn, 83, 768.
Rose, S. A. (1990). Cross-modal transfer in human infants: What is being transferred? Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 38-50.
Rossi, N, Avveduti, P, Rizzo, N. & Lorusso, R. (1989). Maternal stress and fetal motor behavior: A preliminary report. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(4), 311-318. See follow up letter, same Journal 4(4), 265-266.
Row, K V. & Drivas, A. (1993). Planned conception and infant functioning at age three months: A cross-cultural study. American J. Orthopsychiatry 63(1), 120-125.
Ryder, G H. (1943). Vagitus uterinus. Ameican. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 46, 867-872.
Salapatek, P& Cohen, L. (Eds.) (1987). Handbook of infant perception. Vol I: From sensation to perception. New York: Academic Press.
Sallenbach, W. B. (1993). The intelligent prenate: Paradigms in prenatal learning and bonding. In T Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning and bonding (pp. 61-106). Hong Kong & Berlin: Leonardo.
Scafidi, F, Field, T Schanberg, S., & Bauer, C. (1990). Massage stimulates growth in preterm infants: A replication, infant Behavior & Development, 13(2), 167-188.
Schleidt, M. & Gensel, C. (1990). The significance of mother's perfume for infants in their first weeks of their life. Ethology & Sociobiology, 11, 145-154.
Schneider, M. L. & Coe, C. L. (1993). Repeated social stress during pregnancy impairs neuromotor development of the primate infant. J. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 14(2), 81-87.
Schwartz, L. (1980/1991). Bonding before birth: A guide to becoming a family. Boston Sigo Press.
Sexon, W. R., Schneider, P, Chamberlin, J. L., Hicks, M. K, & Sexon, B. (1986). Auditory conditioning in the critically ill neonate to enhance interpersonal relationships. J. of Perinatology, 6, 20-23.
Shahidullah, S. & Hepper, P G. (1992). Hearing in the fetus: Prenatal detection of deafness. International Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Studies, 4 (No. 3/4), 235-240.
Slater, A., Morison, V., & Rose, D. (1984). Habituation in the newborn. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 183-200.
Slater, A, Mattock, A., Brown, E., & Bremner, J. G. (1991). Form perception at birth: Cohen & Younger (1984) revisited. J. of Experimental Child Psychology, 51(3), 395-406.
Smotherman, W. P. & Robinson, S. R. (1987). Prenatal influences on development: Behavior is not a trivial aspect of fetal life. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 8(3), 171-176.
Sontag, L. W & Newbery, H. (1940). Normal variations of fetal heart rate during pregnancy. American Journal Ob/Gyn, 40, 449-452.
Sontag, L. (1966). Implications of fetal behavior and environment for adult personalities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 134, 782-786.
Spelke, E. S., Breinlinger, K., Macomber, J., & Jacobson, K. (1992). Origins of knowledge. Psychological Review, 99(4), 605-632.
Stern, D. (1980). Film. Cited in Sander, L., New knowledge about the infant from current research: Implications for psychoanalysis. J. of American Psychoanalytic Association, 28, 181-198.
Stott, D. H. (1957). Physical and mental handicaps following a disturbed pregnancy. Lancet, 1, 1006-1012.
Tajani, E. & Ianniruberto, A. (1990). The uncovering of fetal competence. In M. Papini, A. Pasquinelh, & E. A. Gidoni (Eds.), Development, handicap, rehabilitation: Practice and theory (pp. 3-8). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Tatzer, E., Schubert, M. T., Timischl, W, & Simbruner, G (1985). Discrimination of taste and preference or sweet in premature babies. Early Human Development, 12, 23-30.
Thiery, M., Yo Lo Sian, A., Vrijens, M. & Janssens, M. (1973). Vagitus uterinus. J. of Obstetrics & Gynecology of the British Commonwealth, 80, 183-185.
Thoman, E. B., Ingersoll, E. W., & Acebo, C. (1991). Premature infants seek rhythmic stimulation, and the experience facilitates neurobehavioral development. J. of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 12(1), 11-18.
Thoman, E. B. (1993). Obligation and option in the premature nursery. Developmental Review, 13(1), 1-30.
Thoman, E. B. & Ingersoll, E. W. (1993). Learning in premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 692-700.
Tomatis, A A (1991). The conscious ear. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press.
Trevarthen, C. (1974). The psychobiology of speech development. Neuroscience Research Progress Bulletin, 12(4), 570-585.
Trevarthen, C. (1977). Descriptive analysis of infant communicative behavior. In H. R. Shaffer (Ed.), Studies in mother-infant interaction (Ch. 10). N. Y.: Academic Press.
Tronick, E. & Adamson, L. (1980). Babies as people: New findings on our social beginnings. New York & London: Collier Books.
Truby, H. M. (1975). Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language 1975, a special issue of WORD, 27(1-3).
Van de Carr, F. R. & Lehrer, M. (1986). Enhancing early speech, parental bonding and infant physical development using prenatal intervention in a standard obstetrical practice. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal 1(1), 20-30.
Van de Carr, F. R. & Lehrer, M. (1988). Prenatal University: Commitment to fetal-family bonding and the strengthening of the family unit as an educational institution. Pre&Perinatal Psychology Journal 3(2), 87-102.
Van de Carr, K, Van de Carr, F. R., & Lehrer, M. (1988). Effects of a prenatal intervention program. In P. Fedor-Freybergh & M. L. V Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal & perinatal psychology & medicine: A compre- hensive survey of research and practice, (pp. 489495) Lancaster, England: Parthenon Publishing.
Van de Carr, F R. & Lehrer, M. (1992). The prenatal classroom: A parents guide for teaching your baby in the womb. Atlanta, GA: Humanics Learning.
Van Dongen, L. G. R. & Goudie, E. G. (1980). Fetal movement patterns in the first trimester of pregnancy. British J. OblGyn, 87, 191-193.
Verny, T. with Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Summit.
Verny, T. & Weintraub, P. (1991). Nurturing the unborn child: A nine-month program for soothing, stimulating, and communicating with your baby. New York Delacorte Press.
Walton, G E., Bower, N. J., & Bower, T. G R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborn. Infant Behavior & Development, 15(2), 265-269.
Ward, A. J. (1991). Prenatal stress and childhood psychopathology Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 22(2), 97-110.
Whitelaw, A. (1990). Kangaroo baby care: Just a nice experience or an important advance for preterm infants? Pediatrics, 85(4), 604-605.
Widmer, C. (1979). Postures et movements: Discrimination des personnes chez le bebe de 0 a 6 mois. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Geneva, Switzerland.
Zuckerman, B., Bauchner, H., Parker, S. & Cabrai, H. (1990). Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and newborn irritability. J. of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 11(4), 190-194.