The Expanding Boundaries of Memory
Publication Date:March 1990
In psychology, traditional studies have sought the boundaries of memory in specific brain structures thought to mark the beginning and limits of memory.
Recent discoveries in neuroscience suggest new brain processes and chronologies relevant to memory. Advances in brain research and instrumentation have clarified some memory pathways and permitted direct observation of the living brain but these studies obscure the real boundaries of memory.
A major breech of boundaries has come with verification of birth memories of children and adults. Superb memory abilities support a host of newly appreciated cognitive talents of newborns. Memory boundaries are enormously expanded by evidence of prenatal memory, gestation memory, and past-life memory which require radically different explanations.
Evidence from the farther reaches of memory, accessed in non-ordinary states of consciousness, indicates that storage of memory is outside the bodybrain. In this perspective, memory appears to be an innate and ageless endowment of human consciousness.
Andreasen, Nancy C. (1980). Brain imaging: Applications in psychiatry. Science 239, 1381-1388.
Badgley, Laurence E. (1987). Healing AIDS naturally. San Bruno, CA: Human Energy Press.
Bergland, Richard (1985). The fabric of mind. New York & Australia: Viking.
Bolles, Edmund Blair (1988). Remembering and forgetting. NY: Walker & Co.
Chamberlain, David B. (1980/1986). Reliability of birth memories: Evidence from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Paper originally presented to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Minneapolis, 1980 (Nov.); J. of the Amer. Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysts 2(2), 89-98, 1986.
Chamberlain, David B. (1981). Birth recall in hypnosis. Birth Psychology Bulletin 2(2), 14-18.
Chamberlain, David B. (1987). The cognitive newborn: A scientific update. The British Journal of Psychotherapy 4(1), 30-71.
Chamberlain, David B. (1988-a). The significance of birth memories. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal 2(4), 136-154.
Chamberlain, David B. (1988-b). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher; New York: Ballantine Books (1990).
Cheek, David B. (1974). Sequential head and shoulder movements appearing with age regression in hypnosis to birth. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 16(4), 261-266.
Cohen, N.J. & Squire, Larry R. (1980). Preserved learning and retention of pattern analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 210, 207-209.
Diamond, John (1981). The remothering experience: How to totally love Valley Cottage, NY: Archaeus Press, Institute of Behavioral Kinesiology.
Earnshaw, Averil (1983). Family time: The bridge across the generation gap. Sydney, Australia: A & K Enterprises, 13 Carwarral Road, Middle Cove, Sydney, 2068.
Farrant, Graham (1986). Cellular consciousness. Aesthema (Journal of the International Primal Association) 7, 28-39.
Feher, Leslie (1980). The psychology of birth: Foundation of human personality. London: Souvenir Press.
Feldmar, Andrew (1979). The embryology of consciousness: What is a normal pregnancy? In D. Mall & W. Watts (Eds.) The psychological aspects of abortion (pp. 15-24). Washington D.C.: University Publications of America.
Fodor, Nandor (1949). The search for the beloved: A clinical investigation of the trauma of birth and prenatal condition. New York: Hermitage Press.
Fuller, John G. (1979). The airmen who would not die. New York: Putnam.
Gazzaniga, Michael S. (1985). The social brain: Discovering the networks of the mind. New York: Basic Books.
Grof, Stanislav (1979). LSD psychotherapy. Pomona, CA: Hunter House.
Grof, Stanislav (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press.
Grof, Stanislav (1987). Survival of consciousness after death: Myth and science. In John S. Spong (Ed.), Consciousness and survival (pp. 135-164). Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Grof, Stanislav (1988). The adventure of self-discovery. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press.
Hendricks, Gay and Hendricks, Kathlyn (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind approach. Pre & Perinatal Psychology Journal 1(3), 230-238.
Hubbard, L. Ron (1950). Dianetics: The modern science of mental health, Los Angeles: Scientology Publications.
Janov, Arthur (1970). The primal scream: Primal therapy, the cure for neurosis. New York: Putnam.
Janov, Arthur (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York: Coward-McCann.
Kelsey, Denys E. R. (1953). Phantasies of birth and prenatal experience recovered from patients undergoing hypnoanalysis. Journal of Mental Science (The British Journal of Psychiatry) 99, 216-223.
Kolk, Bessel A. van der (1987). Psychological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Laibow, Rima E. (1986). Birth recall: A clinical report. Pre & Perinatal Psychology Journal 1(1), 78-81.
Laibow, Rima E. (1988-a). Prenatal and perinatal experience and developmental impairment. In Peter Fedor-Freybergh & M.L. Vanessa Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 295-308). Lancaster, England: Parthenon Publishing Group.
Laibow, Rima E. (1988-b). Toward a developmental nosology based on attachment theory. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal 3(1), 5-24.
Laing, R.D. (1982). The voice of experience. New York: Pantheon Books.
Lake, Frank (1978). Birth trauma, claustrophobia and LSD therapy. In J. Rowan (Ed.), The individual self (pp. 10-29). London: Churchill Center.
Lashley, Karl S. (1950). In search of the engram. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 4, 454-482.
LeCron, Leslie M. (1963). The uncovering of early memories by ideomotor responses to questioning. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 11(3), 137-142.
Leichtman, Robert R. (1979). From heaven to earth: Jung and Freud return. Columbus, OH: Ariel Press. (No. 4 in a series of 24 interviews with great persons of the past through the mediumship of D. Kendrick Johnson.)
Loftus, Elizabeth (1980). Memory. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Luria, A.R. (1966). Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books.
McCloskey, M. and Zaragoza, M. (1985). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114, 3-18. (see also, Reply to criticism of Loftus et al. (1985) in 114, 375-387.)
Mishkin, Mortimer & Appenzeller, Tim (1987). The anatomy of memory. Scientific American 256(6) June, 80-89.
Moody, Raymond A., Jr. (1976). Life after life New York: Dutton.
Moody, Raymond A., Jr. (1988). The light beyond. New York: Bantam.
Papousek, Hanus & Papousek, Mechtild (1981). How human is the human newborn and what else is to be done? In K. Bloom (Ed.), Prospective issues in infancy research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
Papousek, Hanus & Papousek, Mechtild (1987). Intuitive parenting: A didactic counterpart to the infant's precocity in integrative capacities. In Joy D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (2nd ed.) (pp. 669-720). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Pert, C.B., Ruff, M.R., Weber, R.J., & Herkenham, M. (1985). Neuropeptides and their receptors: A psychosomatic network. Journal of Immunology 135(2), (Supplement) 820-826.
Pert, Candace (1987). Neuropeptides, the emotions and bodymind. In John Spong (Ed.), Proceedings of the symposium on consciousness and survival (pp. 79-89). Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Pribram, Karl H. (1969). Memory mechanisms. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
Pribram, Karl H. (1986). The cognitive revolution and mind/brain issues. American Psychologist 41(5), 507-520.
Raikov, Vladimir L. (1980). Age regression to infancy by adult subjects in deep hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 22(3), 156-163.
Rank, Otto (1929). The trauma of birth. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Ray, Sondra & Mandel, Bob (1987). Birth and relationships: How your birth affects your relationships. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts.
Ring, Kenneth (1980). Life at death: A scientific investigation of the near death experience. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan.
Rochas, Albert de (1911). Les vies successives: Documents pour I'edude de cette question. Paris: Chacornac Freres.
Roediger, Henry L. III (1988). Memory: Not place, but process. APA Monitor (Nov.), p. 4.
Rosenfield, Isaac (1988). The invention of memory. New York: Basic Books.
Sabom, Michael B. (1982). Recollections of death: A medical investigation New York: Simon-Schuster/Wallaby Book.
Scott, John A. Sr. & Scott, John A. Jr. (1984). Age regression to birth. Medical Hypnoanalysis (Jan.), 17-33.
Sheldrake, Rupert (1981). A New science of life: The hypothesis of formative causation, Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.
Sheldrake, Rupert (1987). Can our memories survive the death of our brains? In John Spong (Ed.), Proceedings of the symposium on consciousness and survival (pp. 67-77). Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Sheldrake, Rupert (1988). The presence of the past. New York Times Books.
Squire, Larry R. (1987). Mechanisms of memory. Science 232, 1612-1619.
Sternberg, Robert J. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Viking.
Stevenson, Ian (1974). Xenoglossy: A review and report of a case Charlottsville, VA: University Press of Virginia.
Stevenson, Ian (1977). The explanatory value of the idea of reincarnation. Journal of Nervous & Mental Diseases 164, 305-326.
Stevenson, Ian (1983). American children who claim to remember previous lives. Journal of Nervous & Mental Diseases 171(12), 742-748.
Treffert, Darold A. (1989) Extraordinary People: Understanding "Idiot Savants." New York: Harper and Row.
Tulving, Endel (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist 40(4), 385-398.
Van Husen, Josephine, E. (1988). The development of fears, phobias, and restrictive patterns of adaptation following attempted abortions. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal 2(3), 179-185.
Winnecott, D.W. (1949) "Birth Memories, Birth Trauma, and Anxiety" in Through paediatrics to psychoanalysis. (1958 edition) New York: Basic Books.
David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D.
Address correspondence to David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D., 909 Hayes Avenue, San Diego, CA 92103.