• Staunching Aggression from the Womb

Note: Ms. Liu was published in Volume 18, Issue 4 or our journal - article titled "Prenatal and Perinatal Complications as Predispositions to Externalizing Behavior".

Crime and delinquency have roots in the womb, and so the risks can and should be addressed early on, even before a child is born, a University of Pennsylvania researcher says.

According to a large body of research, the early risk factors that may predispose a child to violence include teen pregnancy, birth complications, lead exposure, head injury, child abuse, and maternal stress and depression.

Jianghong Liu, an assistant professor at Penn’s School of Nursing and School of Medicine, argues that these factors, whether biological, psychological or environmental, can interact with each other early on, increasing the odds of a lifetime of violent behavior.