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Psychosocial Prenatal Intervention to Reduce Alcohol, Smoking and Stress and Improve Birth Outcome among Minority Women1
Publication Date: 03/2000
Author(s): Lewis E Mehl-Madrona

Background: Culturally sensitive intervention programs are needed to help Native American and Hispanic populations reduce alcohol, drug and tobacco use during pregnancy. Reduction of the adverse impact of psychosocial stress, increase of social support, and adequate preparation for labor and birth is also desirable.

The Genius Within Us: Psychospiritual Guidance during Prenatal and Perinatal Development and its Connection to Human Potential After Birth1
Publication Date: 03/2000
Author(s): Thomas Armstrong

This paper examines the cross-cultural appearance of myths, stories, customs, and legends that refer to images of protection and guardianship of a fetus before, during, and after birth. Included in this discussion are the Jewish angel Lailah, the Christian guardian angel, the Greek daimon, the Roman genius, the Chinese goddess Kuan-yin, the Mauri goddess Hine-Titama, the Egyptian god Bes, as well as a look at indigenous peoples' mythologies that appoint guardianship status to trees, land, animals, and inanimate objects.

The Influence of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone on Human Fetal Development and Parturition
Publication Date: 03/2000
Author(s): Laura M Glynn

Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide that has a central role in responses to stress. During pregnancy, CRH also is synthesized by the placenta. This paper focuses on the effects of placental CRH on two outcomes: timing of onset of parturition and fetal development. It appears that premature elevation of placental CRH during pregnancy may contribute to shorter gestational lengths. Also, CRH may affect fetal development.

Toward a Scientific Approach to Prenatal Psychology: From Twilight to Dialog1
Publication Date: 03/2000
Author(s): Sepp Schindler

The history of child psychology developed around the question of how far, and in what way children are different from adults and different from children in later stages of life. This presented problems for prenatal psychology. The author follows the evolution of thought about prenatal life from Sigmund Freud, Sandor Ferenczi, Otto Rank and Gustav Hans Graber, the founder and first president of the International Studysociety in Prenatal Psychology (ISPP).

Babies are not What We Thought: Call for a New Paradigm
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

Babies are not what we thought they were in the 19th century or even twenty five years ago. Abundant new findings from experimental research, psychotherapy, and anecdotal reports have rendered traditional views of human development obsolete, yet many obstetricians and psychologists continue to view babies in 19th century terms. The author summarizes this view and its failings and assembles the evidence for a new paradigm that babies, of whatever age, are aware, expressive, and affected by their interactions with others.

Babies Don't Feel Pain: A Century of Denial in Medicine
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

During the 20th century when medicine rose to dominate childbirth in the United States, it brought with it a denial of infant pain based on ancient prejudices and scientific dogmas no longer supportable. The painful collision of babies with doctors is seen in neonatal intensive care, infant surgery without anesthesia, painful obstetric routines, and genital mutilation of newborn males. This presentation includes a historical review of experiments on infant reactions to pain, the persistence of medical practices causing pain, and speculation about the reasons for professional indifference.

Foundations of Sex, Love and Relationships: From Conception to Birth
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

The nine-month period from conception to birth, previously hidden and mysterious, is increasingly illuminated by the technology of science. Signs of intelligent behavior early in gestation cast new light on traditional ideas about the brain, learning, memory, self, and the primal origins of relationships. In the womb, relationships are everything; mother and child are progressively linked by physical senses, the aura of emotion, and their mutual perceptions of outside events. Their relationship is carried forward to birth, when babies learn much more about people and life.

Life in the Womb: Dangers and Opportunities
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

As scientific knowledge of life before birth continues to increase, the prenate is revealed to be more sensitive and capable than we ever thought possible, opening up new opportunities for growth and ideal communications between babies and their mothers and fathers. Working against this force for good, the world environment becomes ever more toxic and invasive bringing hazards directly into the womb. A mother's own stresses and emotions constitute yet another environmental hazard. At stake is the future health of individual persons, the stability of families, and the peace of society.

Obstetrics and the Prenatal Psyche
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

The routine collision of babies with medical technology betrays ignorance that the baby is sentient and is an active partner in pregnancy and birth. Nineteenth century ideas about the baby and the baby's brain keep obstetric "management" of birth from being baby-friendly. This paper illuminates the prenatal psyche, its sensory foundations, its social and cognitive orientation, and its vulnerability to obstetrical interventions.

Prenatal Body Language: A New Perspective on Ourselves
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

Body language is a direct form of communication which begins long before formal language, occurs continually, and has universal meanings throughout the life span. Current technologies permit us to observe human movement and expression during the entire period of human gestation, and reveal the early origins of sensory perception, emotional expression, and personality. There appear to be three types of prenatal body language: 1) self-initiated, spontaneous movements, 2) behaviors reactive to the environment, and 3) interactive, social behaviors.

Reliability Of Birth Memory: Observations from Mother and Child Pairs in Hypnosis
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

For almost a century clinicians have encountered birth memories and wondered if they were real memories or creative fantasies. Empirical studies have revealed both the fallibility and validity of human memory. In this study a side-by-side comparison was made of birth memories obtained in hypnosis from ten children (ages 9 to 23) who had no conscious memories of birth, and their mothers who claimed they had never shared details of the birth with them.

The Significance of Birth Memories
Publication Date: 10/1999
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

Increasing numbers of people, from age two and upward, are remembering their own birth. They are doing this with a variety of methods and sometimes no method at all. Although controversial for a century, these memories can now be set hi a broad empirical framework for the first time. Narrative memories of birth are documentaries of potentially great significance. Four dimensions are cited: 1) Clinical. A growing literature indicates the importance of birth in the creation of many psychological problems.

Antecedents to Somatoform Disorders: A Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Hypothesis
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Bobbi Jo Lyman

The somatofonn cluster of behavioral disorders is the single most frequent class of unexplainable problems found in primary care medical settings today. What is known about these disorders is that there are physiological, social, and psychological variables that need to be considered. What is not known is how a person develops a propensity toward having physical symptoms as their primary complaint. The author suggests that human beings are classically conditioned when faced with intolerable emotional experiences in the womb or during birth.

Prenatal and Perinatal Foundations of Moral Development
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Millicent Adams Dosh

Drawing upon an impressive body of writing and published research in the area of prenatal and perinatal psychology, the author here presents her own thoughts about the critical importance of the prenatal and perinatal period as foundational for the later moral development and behavior of the person. She argues that any design for moral education must take this early period into account.

The Biopsychosocial Transactional Model of Development: The Beginning of The Formation of An Emergent Sense of Self in the Newborn
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Donis Eichhorn

The rationale for providing an emotionally positive experience for both the infant's beginning "emergent sense of self (Stern, 1985) and for his return to the "Secure Base" (Bowlby, 1988) of his mother vis-a-vis his innate ability for "self attachment" within the first hour after birth (Righard & Alade, 1990) is explored.Giving birth and being born are both physiological and psychological processes.

The Effects of Domestic Abuse on the Unborn Child
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Amy L Gilliland

This paper explores the relationship of domestic violence toward a pregnant mother on the subsequent behavior of her child. Through examination of the literature on physical abuse during pregnancy a picture emerges of the fetal environment. Exposure to this environment was consistently shown to have detrimental effects in infancy and childhood and in later adult life particularly evidenced by emotional and behavioral disorders, and increased evidence of criminal and violent behavior and suicide.

The Role of Childhood Memory Scores in Parenting in Pregnancy and Early Postpartum
Publication Date: 03/1999
Author(s): Joann M O'Leary, Cecilie Gaziano

As expectant parents begin the developmental tasks of pregnancy, their own histories hegin to resurface, consciously or subconsciously. Ways to explore childhood memories during pregnancy in a non-threatening and nurturing way may enhance the medical care and the parenting experience in this transition. Since pregnancy is a time when people are open to new information and change, this can be an opportunity for exploring relationships with partners, their health care providers, and the unborn child.

Perinatal Death: How Fathers Grieve
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Timothy Wagner

The purpose of this study was to explore with fathers their perinatal death experiences. Data were collected from 11 fathers who experienced a perinatal death. Fathers who experienced perinatal death in the second trimester or later reported having a more intense and more prolonged grieving experience. Grief intensity diminished over time and remained mild to moderate for as long as 5 years following the death. Fathers felt their experience was misunderstood by family, friends, and co-workers and they were not adequately supported by their family or the community.

Prenatal Language Learning
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Marshall R Childs

Although it is often ignored or denied by investigators of language learning, prenatal language learning is an important aspect of human development. During the third trimester of gestation, a baby in the womb can hear the mother's voice clearly, and makes use of this ability by learning the rhythms, tones, and sequences of whatever languages the mother speaks. These phonological patterns do not stand apart from context, but instead are experienced as integral parts of the mother's moods and activities.

Two Voices from the Womb: Evidence for Physically Transcendent and a Cellular Source of Fetal Consciousness
Publication Date: 12/1998
Author(s): Jenny Wade

In recent years, prenatal research has demonstrated that fetuses are far more sophisticated than previously thought, findings generally ignored by the medical and psychological establishment in part because the neurological structures traditionally associated with mentation were not believed to be functional. Recent research on memory suggests that consciousness may not be dependent on the central nervous system, or even on the body.

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