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Interpreting the Dread of Being Aborted in Therapy
Publication Date: 05/1997
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper will illustrate how the sequelae of prenatal trauma can be transferentially expressed in a variety of pathological symptoms in postnatal life. An in-depth examination, based on a receptive posture in the therapist, often reveals that the traumatized unborn in the patient has developed a congenital diathesis which has predisposed him to have repeated postnatal reenactments symbolic of the original pre-natal trauma. This diathesis cannot automatically be assumed to be an expression of genetic endowment.

Sexual Assault and Birth Trauma: Interrelated Issues
Publication Date: 05/1997
Author(s): Michael Irving

A host of corresponding sensations and dynamics may be present during birth and during sexual abuse. Physical, emotional and environmental similarities between the original experience of birth and sexual abuse imbue these traumas with common symptomology, feelings and life patterns. The "terrain" of both traumas is the body which often stores both memories and affect. Later sexual abuse traumas often become merged with earlier birth and prenatal traumas. In the therapeutic setting the symptomology, abreaction and artistic expression of these two issues can be highly similar.

Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: The First Six Months
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): M J Lafuente

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method applied to a sample of maternity patients at University Hospital "La Fe" in Valencia, with 71 women in the control group and 101 in the experimental group. Both groups were enrolled in the birth preparation course offered at the hospital. In addition, future mothers in the experimental group wore a waistband equipped with small speakers connected to a tape recorder which played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds.

Natalism in Fairy Tales
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): Jeane Rhodes

Evidence of birth and prenatal memories has been postulated as revealing itself in myth, fairy tales, and works of art. This paper presents natalistic symbology as previously proposed by Otto Rank (1929), Nandor Fodor (1949), T. W.

Social Regression and the Global Prevalence of Abortion
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper advances the thesis that the high but little commented on global prevalence of abortion which amounts to 25% of the unborn being aborted world-wide, is mobilizing an almost universally denied and repressed dread of being aborted which is present to varying degrees in the unconscious of most humans, and that this dread and the defenses against facing it are transferentially acted out in the form of quiet or conspicuous individual and social regression.

Massage with Oil Has More Positive Effects on Normal Infants
Publication Date: 12/1996
Author(s): Tiffany Field

Sixty one-month-old normal infants were randomly assigned to a massage group with oil and a massage group without oil. Massage had a soothing/calming influence on the infants, particularly when given with oil. The infants who received massage with oil were less active, showed fewer stress behaviors and head averting, and their saliva cortisol levels decreased more. In addition, vagal activity increased more following massage with oil versus massage without oil.

Self-Rating Assessment of Postnatal Depression: A Comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
Publication Date: 12/1996
Author(s): Véronique Lussier

Two self-report rating scales of depression, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were administered simultaneously to a large sample of new mothers at two and six months postpartum. Scores computed as continuous variables yielded high correlation coefficients at both moments of measure. Classification of subjects on the basis of recommended cutoff points yielded identical frequencies and defined similar patterns of onset and recovery, but showed a high degree of discrepancy between the two scales in the identification of dysphoric individuals.

Singing Lullabies to Unborn Children: Experiences in Village Vilamarxant, Spain
Publication Date: 10/1996
Author(s): Rosario N Rozada Montemurro

When pregnant women of the village of Vilamarxant, Spain, began singing for two hours a week, they discovered a cascade of psychological benefits including emotional expression, tension relief, and a powerful group solidarity. As they clapped and tapped musical rhythms with their hands and feet, learning folk songs and lullabies, their babies seemed to be joining in their fun. Two older mothers who were scheduled for Caesareans gave birth spontaneously and confidently.

The Emotional Experience of the Fetus: A Preliminary Report
Publication Date: 10/1996
Author(s): Pier Luigi Righetti

From the observation of the bonding behavior that the newborn shows even during the first hours of life, the high degree synchronization and transaction that he shows during interaction with his mother, and the capability that many mothers have of immediately establishing a relationship with him, we can arrive at the conclusion that bonding after birth, described by many authors as a separate entry, is really the continuation of the intrauterine contact that began long before.

Use of the Telephone and Hypnosis in Reversing True Preterm Labor at 26 Weeks: The Value of Ideomotor Questioning in a Crisis
Publication Date: 05/1996
Author(s): David B Cheek

A physician with a history of four previous spontaneous abortions stopped the progression of preterm labor and gave birth to a healthy baby at term. Repeated troubled dreams are the cause of painful Braxton Hicks contractions. These are innocuous until an alarmed mother breaks off telepathic communications to her fetus. This starts a sequence of events beginning with expulsive labor, rupture of membranes and birth of a compromised baby. Preterm birth is preventable. The process can be reversed.

The Inheritance of Life Events: A Synopsis of Time Will Tell
Publication Date: 03/1996
Author(s): Averil Earnshaw

What were your parents doing at this age? Time will tell.

Build Babies, Not Jails
Publication Date: 12/1995
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

It takes much neglect, rejection, humiliation, physical maltreatment and sexual abuse to transform a tiny, trusting, innocent human being into a callous, cruel and vicious person. This paper examines some of the factors that lead to the development of the violent personality from conception on. It is suggested that the answer to violence is not state violence. The answer is conscious pre and postnatal parenting supported by social institutions, laws and practices which attend to the needs of pregnant parents, particularly, the disadvantaged. Our motto should be: BUILD BABIES NOT JAILS.

Early Use of Psychotherapy in Prevention of Preterm Labor: The Application of Hypnosis and Ideomotor Techniques with Women Carrying Twin Pregnancies
Publication Date: 10/1995
Author(s): David B Cheek

Conscious and unconscious fears appear to be the cause of preterm labor. These can be discovered and removed during brief telephone communications using hypnosis and ideomotor techniques at any time from the onset of painful Braxton Hicks to the irreversible situation where cervical dilatation has exceeded four centimeters or the membranes have ruptured. Two examples are offered to demonstrate the methods successfully used to help two women carry their twins to viability.

Why Do Babies Cry?
Publication Date: 10/1995
Author(s): Aletha Solter

This paper discusses the baffling phenomenon of extensive crying in infants for unknown reasons, frequently referred to as "colic." Traditional explanations based on gastrointestinal, allergenic, and psychosocial factors are discussed, and evidence supporting a stress-release theory of infant crying is presented. The various sources of stress during infancy are reviewed, and appropriate caregiving responses to crying are discussed.

Behavioral Reactions of Preterm and Low-Birthweight Infants to a Program of Tactile Stimulation
Publication Date: 05/1995
Author(s): Áine de Róiste

The behavioral reactions were monitored of a group of premature and low-birthweight infants (mean gestational age at stimulation was 37 weeks) in a special care baby unit to two sessions of the Tac-Tic program of stroking. Arm and leg movements were found to be the most frequent reactions and a striking similarity occurred between maternal and paternal stroking, in the pattern and frequency of infant reactions elicited. No significant differences were found in the type or number of reactions elicited by strokes of different bodily areas (head, trunk or limb).

The Relevance of the Dread of Being Aborted to Models of Therapy and Models of the Mind, Part II: Mentation and Communication in the Unborn
Publication Date: 05/1995
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper explores the question of mentation and communication in the unborn using data from neurology, pediatrics, obstetrics, biochemistry, embryology, animal research, ultrasound studies, infant development, studies of autism, linguistics, kinesics, patient reports, family system theory, and studies of primitive mental states. It also includes a discussion on the pertinence of polysema and semiosis, non-verbal knowing, time sense, and the ambient prenatal psychological family to an understanding of prenatal experience.

Relationships Among Stress, Anxiety, Type A, and Pregnancy-Related Complications
Publication Date: 03/1995
Author(s): Kathleen M Kalil

The relationships among stress, state and trait anxiety, Type A personality and antepartum and postpartum health of women and their fetuses/infants were analyzed. A medical/psychosocial questionnaire and two inventories were mailed to each participant (n = 433) during each trimester of pregnancy. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain health problems. Type A and state anxiety were not as strongly related to maternal or fetal/infant complications as were stressor number, stressor intensity, or trait anxiety. Also, the predictors were generally stronger in the latter stages of pregnancy.

The Relevance of the Dread of Being Aborted to Models of Therapy and Models of the Mind, Part I: Case Examples
Publication Date: 03/1995
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper describes how marked positive changes occurred in two male patients when feelings of dread of tunnels, bridges and interpersonal relationships were found to be transferential derivatives of an underlying dread of being aborted and a wish to be aborted. Both of these men had a proneness to act out by sanctioning the abortion of their own and others' unborn children.

Chains of Grief: The Impact of Perinatal Loss on Subsequent Pregnancy
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Gayle Peterson

This paper identifies women who are at greater potential for medical complications in their pregnancies due to post traumatic stress resulting from previous perinatal loss. The loss may have been suffered by the woman herself during a past pregnancy or she may have inherited heightened anxiety from perinatal loss experienced by her mother. In the latter case, the unresolved grief is transmitted from mother to daughter, affecting physiological, emotional and behavioral patterns in the next generation. Pregnancy presents an opportunity for healing.

How to Maximize Human Potential at Birth
Publication Date: 12/1994
Author(s): Chairat Panthuraamphorn

Building on a successful program of prenatal stimulation previously reported, obstetrical routines were altered to provide more continuity with the womb environment. The paper reports both the rationale and specific procedures employed. The goal of the program was to treat the newborn as a person, minimize discomfort during birth and avoid conditions of possible stress and anxiety. Gentle stimulation included eye-to-eye contact, smiles, skin-to-skin touch, soothing voices, early breastfeeding, and enjoyable relations between mother, father, and child.

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