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Insidious Trauma Caused by Prenatal Gender Prejudice
Publication Date: 10/1998
Author(s): Diane Zimberoff

When the inherent value of females is marginalized by society, the resulting trauma may result in depression, anxiety, dissociation, decreased self-esteem, victimization, displaced anger, somatic ailments, and despair. Ultimately, trauma from gender bias (or racial bias) is insidious trauma, an assault on every level of security a person has: physical, psychological, interpersonal, and spiritual. The damage is devastating when the trauma occurs during the pre- and perinatal period.

Nature, Nurture and the Power of Love
Publication Date: 10/1998
Author(s): Bruce H Lipton

Leading edge research in cell biology reveals that "environmental signals" are primarily responsible for selecting the genes expressed by an organism. This new perspective is in direct contrast with the established view that our fate is controlled by our genes. The new emphasis on nurture (environment) controlling nature (genes) focuses special attention on the importance of the maternal environment in fetal development.

A Controlled Experiment in Prenatal Enrichment with 684 Families in Caracas, Venezuela: Results to Age Six
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Beatriz Manrique

Based on systematic measurement of experimental and control group participants from birth to age six, the authors conclude that a program of prenatal intervention beginning in the fifth prenatal month produces significant improvement in newborns, their mothers, and in family solidarity. All the parents in this study lived in poor ghettos of Caracas. Annual measurements reveal that the infants receiving the extra care and attention maintained a consistent lead in development throughout the six-year testing period.

Claira: A Case Study in Prenatal Learning
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): William B Sallenbach

Historically, most studies of prenatal learning have centered upon contingency reinforcements, habituation responses, and developmental outcomes. Very little research has examined the learning process during the prenatal period. This case study examines the behavioral responses of one prenate to an experimental curriculum. Significant movement responses are noted. The responses appear as an organized pattern which would imply that the prenate is capable of progressing from generality and abstraction, to specificity and discernment in the learning process.

Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: The First Six Months
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): M J Lafuente

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method applied to a sample of maternity patients at University Hospital "La Fe" in Valencia, with 71 women in the control group and 101 in the experimental group. Both groups were enrolled in the birth preparation course offered at the hospital. In addition, future mothers in the experimental group wore a waistband equipped with small speakers connected to a tape recorder which played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds.

Environmental Influences on Human Brain Growth and Development
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): Chairat Panthuraamphorn

In a study designed to create an enriched environment for prenates by minimizing environmental stressors and substituting a positive, stimulating milieu, we designed a program that would reduce maternal stress with visualization and relaxation exercises, encourage mother-child bonding through prenatal communication and interaction exercises, and pleasantly stimulate prenatal auditory, tactile, visual and vestibular processes.

Prenatal Receptivity and Intelligence
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

This article sets the beginnings of research in prenatal stimulation in historical context with the larger movement of infant research surrounding it. Of particular interest is the evidence for prenatal intelligence, which is here organized around new definitions provided by Richard Sternberg and Howard Gardner. This evidence provides parents with additional reasons to begin communication with prenates as soon as possible and provides psychologists with additional reasons to formulate a larger paradigm to describe the true nature of prenates.

Prenatal University: Commitment to Fetal-Family Bonding and the Strengthening of the Family Unit as an Educational Institution
Publication Date: 03/1998
Author(s): F Rene Van de Carr

This paper reviews The Prenatal University stimulation program, which is designed: 1) to create an interactive relationship between parents-to-be and the developing fetus, and 2) to reinforce a "preconscious awareness of the environment" by the developing fetus. The prenatal stimulation program is designed with working parents in mind. Only two five-minute sessions are required per day for effective implementation. Both mother and father are involved; siblings and other relatives are also encouraged to join in the game-like sessions.

Early and Very Early Parenting: New Territories
Publication Date: 12/1997
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

In the Western world, the beginnings of parenthood have been obscured by the pervasive materialism of medicine and psychology which doubts the cognitive status of neonates and denies the human aspects of fetal behavior. This has led to confusion about the nature of parenthood and when it begins. What is currently referred to as "early" parenting begins after birth and is at least nine months late. If discoveries in prenatal psychology are to be taken seriously, early parenting begins after conception and very early parenting begins before conception.

Magic Babies
Publication Date: 12/1997
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper present a thesis that babies are conceived psychogenetically at the same time that they are conceived physically. The manner of their conception becomes an unthought known as part of their being. The term magic babies has been chosen to indicate babies that are produced by various reproductive technologies. The implications of reproductive technology for the welfare of the babies being produced, for their conceivers, bearers and rearers, for their siblings, grandparents and extended family, for their potential children and grandchildren, and for society will also be discussed.

Alternative Therapies: Incorporating the Ancient Practice of Yoga Postures
Publication Date: 10/1997
Author(s): Jeane Rhodes

This article brings together the ancient practice of yoga, specifically the postures (asanas) and other therapeutic techniques in a holistic approach to therapy that includes understanding of birth and prenatal experiences as basic. With a focus on the potential for using yoga postures in psychotherapy, research was completed involving 22 children, ages four years and eight months through nine years and eleven months. These children were video-taped while performing a series of five, especially selected, yoga postures.

Anesthesia for Neonatal Circumcision: Who Benefits?
Publication Date: 10/1997
Author(s): Robert S Van Howe

As the medical myths used to justify the practice of neonatal circumcision have each been disproven, the latest "myth" used by circumcisers to perpetuate the surgery is that the use of topical and local anesthetics "eliminates" the pain of neonatal circumcision. While some interventions have reduced the amount of crying during the surgery, it is not clear whether topical or local anesthetics reduce pain substantially. Their impact on the stress of the surgery appears to be minimal.

Perinatal Stress Reduction, Music and Medical Cost Savings
Publication Date: 10/1997
Author(s): Fred J Schwartz

The author uses his experience as an anesthesiologist involved in music medicine to discuss the psychophysiology of perinatal stress. The use of music as an adjunct to medical care for mother and child in the prenatal and postnatal period, as well as the implications for improved outcome and medical cost savings are addressed. The importance of the fetal auditory environment as a conduit for communication and learning is also examined.

Interpreting the Dread of Being Aborted in Therapy
Publication Date: 05/1997
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper will illustrate how the sequelae of prenatal trauma can be transferentially expressed in a variety of pathological symptoms in postnatal life. An in-depth examination, based on a receptive posture in the therapist, often reveals that the traumatized unborn in the patient has developed a congenital diathesis which has predisposed him to have repeated postnatal reenactments symbolic of the original pre-natal trauma. This diathesis cannot automatically be assumed to be an expression of genetic endowment.

Sexual Assault and Birth Trauma: Interrelated Issues
Publication Date: 05/1997
Author(s): Michael Irving

A host of corresponding sensations and dynamics may be present during birth and during sexual abuse. Physical, emotional and environmental similarities between the original experience of birth and sexual abuse imbue these traumas with common symptomology, feelings and life patterns. The "terrain" of both traumas is the body which often stores both memories and affect. Later sexual abuse traumas often become merged with earlier birth and prenatal traumas. In the therapeutic setting the symptomology, abreaction and artistic expression of these two issues can be highly similar.

Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: The First Six Months
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): M J Lafuente

This paper explores the effectiveness of the Firstart prenatal stimulation method applied to a sample of maternity patients at University Hospital "La Fe" in Valencia, with 71 women in the control group and 101 in the experimental group. Both groups were enrolled in the birth preparation course offered at the hospital. In addition, future mothers in the experimental group wore a waistband equipped with small speakers connected to a tape recorder which played a series of eight tapes of violin sounds.

Natalism in Fairy Tales
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): Jeane Rhodes

Evidence of birth and prenatal memories has been postulated as revealing itself in myth, fairy tales, and works of art. This paper presents natalistic symbology as previously proposed by Otto Rank (1929), Nandor Fodor (1949), T. W.

Social Regression and the Global Prevalence of Abortion
Publication Date: 03/1997
Author(s): John C Sonne

This paper advances the thesis that the high but little commented on global prevalence of abortion which amounts to 25% of the unborn being aborted world-wide, is mobilizing an almost universally denied and repressed dread of being aborted which is present to varying degrees in the unconscious of most humans, and that this dread and the defenses against facing it are transferentially acted out in the form of quiet or conspicuous individual and social regression.

Massage with Oil Has More Positive Effects on Normal Infants
Publication Date: 12/1996
Author(s): Tiffany Field

Sixty one-month-old normal infants were randomly assigned to a massage group with oil and a massage group without oil. Massage had a soothing/calming influence on the infants, particularly when given with oil. The infants who received massage with oil were less active, showed fewer stress behaviors and head averting, and their saliva cortisol levels decreased more. In addition, vagal activity increased more following massage with oil versus massage without oil.

Self-Rating Assessment of Postnatal Depression: A Comparison of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
Publication Date: 12/1996
Author(s): Véronique Lussier

Two self-report rating scales of depression, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were administered simultaneously to a large sample of new mothers at two and six months postpartum. Scores computed as continuous variables yielded high correlation coefficients at both moments of measure. Classification of subjects on the basis of recommended cutoff points yielded identical frequencies and defined similar patterns of onset and recovery, but showed a high degree of discrepancy between the two scales in the identification of dysphoric individuals.

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