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Pre- and Perinatal Experiences and Personality: A Retrospective Analysis
Publication Date: 01/1992
Author(s): Robyn L Irving-Neto

ABSTRACT: Two thousand, one hundred and sixteen subjects from a variety of backgrounds and places of origin responded to a questionnaire concerning their pre-and perinatal experiences and their present personality. Of particular interest were potential relationships between present personality and maternal drug use during pregnancy and labour, maternal stress during pregnancy, birth type, and physical placement immediately after birth. Responses were analyzed using non-parametric chi-square tests, t-tests, and point biserial correlations.

The Parenting Process in the Prenatal Period: A Developmental Theory
Publication Date: 01/1992
Author(s): Joann M O'Leary

ABSTRACT: It has long been accepted that there is a developmental process women progress through during pregnancy as they take on the parenting role. This paper develops a theory of the unborn baby's role during the prenatal period as an active instigator in this parenting role. Referring to the work of Arnold Gesell and adapting it to the prenatal period, the author theorizes that the unborn baby's growth and development drives the developmental process of the parenting role prenatally.

A Comparison of Emotional State and Support in Women at High and Low Risk for Preterm Birth, with Diabetes in Pregnancy, and in Non-Pregnant Professional Women
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Mary Lou Moore

The authors examine psychosocial factors involved in producing pregnancy complications. An initial descriptive study of the development of psychosocial profiles of three groups of pregnant women (high and low risk for preterm birth and with diabetes mellitus) using seven instruments is presented. The study suggests that economic status may be as important as medical risk as a source of distress among pregnant women.

Birth Trauma and Suicide: A Study of the Relationship Between Near-Death Experiences at Birth and Later Suicidal Behavior
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Jude Roedding

The relationship between birth trauma and suicide is discussed. A critique of psychoanalytic theory is presented. A number of studies linking suicide to birth trauma are surveyed. A synthetic theory of this relationship is described and the positive role of therapy in resolving birth trauma-related conflict is explored.

Effect of Receiving Genetic Counseling On Pre-Event Anxiety in Genetic Amniocentesis Patients
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Jo Ann B Ruiz-Bueno

Data were obtained as part of a larger experimental study of 48 genetic amniocentesis patients, ages 21 to 40. Information about genetic counseling was obtained through the demographic data questionnaire. State anxiety was measured before the procedure. Pre-event anxiety scores of women who had received genetic counseling before the day of the procedure were compared with those who had not received counseling before their appointment day.

Maternal Psychological Characteristics and Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Robert L Goldenberg

Scores on six psychosocial questionnaires were compared to the risk of delivering an IUGR infant. In the second trimester, scales for stress, anxiety, social support, mastery, self esteem, and depression were prospectively administered to 1500 indigent women. In univariate analyses, significant relationships were found between IUGR and a poor score for mastery, stress, anxiety and self-esteem. The results were additive in that the more poor the scores, the higher the rate of IUGR.

Prenatal Stress and Handedness Among Offspring
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Lee Ellis

Stressful experiences recalled by 270 mothers beginning a year prior to pregnancy through to the end of pregnancy were compared for right, left, and mixed handed offspring of both sexes. For the male offspring, mothers of left handers recalled significantly more severe stress throughout pregnancy than mothers of either right or mixed handers. For the female offspring, no significant differences were found.

Proto-Rhythms: Basis for the Birth of Musical Intelligence and Language Expression
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Ruth Fridman

This paper refers to the role of proto-rhythms in future musical acquisition as basis for the birth of musical intelligence and language expression. It also analyzes the role of rhythm in the very early vocal expressions of newborn babies and of the relation with expressions uttered between their 22nd and 24th months of age. The work presents transcriptions in musical symbols from the 1st cry up to the expressions of the year of life. Proto-rhythms are described and analyzed as well as their importance in back-feeding them.

Fantasy State During Pregnancy: A Psychoanalytic Account
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Laurie N Sherwen

Fantasy during pregnancy is a very common occurrence, especially during the third trimester. It is often disturbing to the woman, and may provide insights into client concerns of clinical relevance to the health care professional who delivers care to this population. This paper reports on a preliminary classification schema for third trimester fantasies, based on a survey of fantasies reported by pregnant women during this time period. Clinical examples of counseling situations using the schema to identify pregnant clients' problems and concerns are discussed.

Infant Outcomes of a Prenatal Stimulation Pilot Study
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Brent Logan

An evaluation of prelearning theory - which maintains that normative brain cell death prior to birth can be beneficially influenced by sensory imprinting - began in December 1986, providing progressive sonoral stimuli for a two-month fetus. These sequenced signals were adapted from the maternal blood pulse, as recorded by hydrophone in utero, thus conforming to the prenate's natural sonic environment; three hours of daily application lasted seven months, administered from a portable audiocassette player with transducers positioned on the abdomen.

Muscular Armoring in Labor: An Orgonomic (Bioenergetic) Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Richard A Blasband

Chronic armoring is a physiologic contraction of the musculature that begins in childhood and serves to protect the organism against inner feelings and threats from the outer world. By blocking the free flow of life energy through the longitudinal axis of the body, armoring inhibits spontaneous pulsation of organ systems and the organism as a whole. In childbirth armoring prevents easy surrender to the process of labor.

Report on Interviews with 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 year old children: Birth Memories
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Jeane Rhodes

Report on Research Project: Interviews with 2 ½ to 3 ½ Year Old Children Regarding Their Memories of Birth and the Pre-Natal Period

The Emotional Reactions of Parents to Their Premature Baby
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Michael T Hynan

Parents have a confusing variety of emotional reactions to the stress of a high-risk birth. Terror, grief, impotence, and anger are common feelings for these parents. Some of these reactions bring families closer together; at other times these emotions pull spouses apart. It is essential to recognize that even though these emotions are very troubling, they are normal experiences during a life-and-death crisis.

The Moon Hung on a Navelstring from the Dark: The Metaphor of Mother As Placenta and Its Effect on Parenting Concepts
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Joan Raphael-Leff

A psychosocial analysis explores some fantasies underpinning sexual asymmetry with emphasis on female childrearing and denial of maternal subjectivity. It is suggested that whereas in the past gender-role distinction between the sexes was rooted in procreativity, recent technological innovations have liberalized definitions in the West, offering greater choice and self-determination as we now can discriminate between sexuality, reproduction and childrearing.

Classification Rates and Relative Risk Factors for Perinatal Events Predicting Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in Children
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Ervin S Batchelor Jr

Perinatal factors were used to predict childhood emotional/behavioral disturbance using a discriminant analysis. A cross validation procedure was employed showing that 20 of 26 factors studied contributed to the separation between groups at clinical levels of accuracy. Frequencies, percentages, and relative risk factors were calculated for each perinatal factor and for the discriminant function. Results were used to argue to a multivariate approach in the examination of a relationship between perinatal events and development of emotional/behavioral disorders in children and adolescents.

Effects of Perinatal Exposure to Opioid Agonists and Antagonists on Central Nervous System Development
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Ian S Zagon

The perinatal opioid syndrome has been recognized for over a century. Examination of this phenomena has revealed no pathognomonic symptoms, but rather a constellation of somatic and neurobiological deficits that may continue into adulthood. Research in this area has found that exogenous opioids such as heroin and methadone interact with opioid receptors and influence development. Moreover, a fundamental and important observation shows that endogenous opioid peptides, the counterpart to exogenous opioids, normally modulate developmental events.

Maternal-Infant Bonding and Pediatric Asthma: An Initial Investigation
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Antonio Madrid

This study examined the frequency of disruptions in maternal-infant bonding within a pediatric asthma population. Two groups, 30 mothers of asthmatic children and 30 mothers of well children, were interviewed through the Maternal Infant Bonding Survey (M.I.B.S.) to study the frequency of non-bonding events in the birth histories of their children. Raters determined that 86% of the asthmatic children were non-bonded as compared to 26% of the well children.

Perinatal Depression in Four Women Reared by Borderline Mothers
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Michael D Trout

As we become more familiar with the continuum of disturbances that are understood as Borderline Personality Disorder, we have come to know more about how the illness affects-and is affected by-other family members. Much less clear is our understanding of what can be expected in the life course of a person reared by a borderline parent. This paper offers a glimpse of that world, by way of reporting on the extreme anxiety and depression experienced by four women-each of whom appears to have been the child of a borderline mother-upon the birth of their babies.

Shared Power: The Essence of Humanized Childbirth
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Susan McKay

This paper discusses the implications of a research project that was reported elsewhere. Here the issue of empowerment and disempowerment of women during hospital births is discussed. The author takes the view that birthing technology can be used to both ends, but is usually used in disempowering ways.

Support for Bereaved Families of Multiple Births
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Elizabeth Bryan

The loss experienced by parents following the perinatal death of a twin is often underestimated by other people and the particular problems are rarely appreciated. A Bereavement Clinic for multiple birth families provides the opportunity to discuss concerns such as incomplete information, lack of a memorial, anger, the fantasy twin, the response to the surviving child and zygosity determination. An informal lunch allows families to meet and share their experiences with other bereaved families.

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