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Attachment or Loss Within Marriage: The Effect of the Medical Model of Birthing on the Marital Bond of Love
Publication Date: 05/1992
Author(s): Marilyn A Moran

ABSTRACT:This paper compares marriages of couples who gave birth at home in a private, loving, intimate way with a group who delivered in the hospital using the customary medical model of birth. Significant differences were found between the two groups at 4- and 12-months postpartum regarding the quality of the love relationship. The do-it-yourself homebirthers revealed far more compatibility in their marriages than did their hospital-delivered counterparts.

Women's Birth Experience and Subsequent Infant Motor Development
Publication Date: 05/1992
Author(s): Lewis E Mehl-Madrona

ABSTRACT: Fifty-four (54) middle-income couples were followed from 6 months of pregnancy until 6 months postpartum. The couples' attitudes were assessed prenatally, observations were made at delivery along with an interview after delivery to assess the emotional quality of the couple's birth experience, and follow-up interviews and observations were made at 6 week intervals until 6 months postpartum to determine level of attachment to the infant. The motor development items of the Bay ley Scales of Infant Development were administered twice to each infant.

Clinical Implications for Behavioral Assessment of Sleep/Wake States in Neonates: Augmenting Medical Diagnostic Evaluations
Publication Date: 03/1992
Author(s): Darlene T DeSantis

ABSTRACT: The use of behaviorally defined sleep and wake states for detecting or predicting abnormal development in high risk newborn infants is addressed. One case of a relatively low risk 32-week gestation infant is used to illustrate that immediate subjective impressions by a trained observer may reveal information useful to the medical staff without having to wait for the lengthy computer analyses usually performed with this assessment technique.

Is There Intelligence Before Birth?
Publication Date: 03/1992
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

The concept of intelligence embodied in I.Q. tests seventy five years ago is now being radically redefined in psychology. New approaches formulated by Robert Sternberg (1988) and Howard Gardner (1983) are many-dimensional, behavioral, and closely related to everyday living. In this presentation experimental, clinical, and anecdotal evidence about life before birth is marshalled to meet the proposed criteria of intelligence. Six specific implications and conclusions are drawn.

Are Telepathy, Clairvoyance and "Hearing" Possible in Utero? Suggestive Evidence as Revealed During Hypnotic Age-Regression Studies of Prenatal Memory
Publication Date: 01/1992
Author(s): David B Cheek

ABSTRACT: Evidence supplied through age-regression studies of adults based on a combination of ideomotor techniques and hypnosis suggests that telepathy, clairvoyance and some form of hearing are perceptions available to the human fetus from the emotional moment its mother knows she is pregnant onward. Fetal interpretation of maternal communications may be mistaken as rejection. Telepathic commands between mother and immature young probably have survival value for lower mammals. The mechanism for silent warning and absolute obedience needs completion before birth.

Pre- and Perinatal Experiences and Personality: A Retrospective Analysis
Publication Date: 01/1992
Author(s): Robyn L Irving-Neto

ABSTRACT: Two thousand, one hundred and sixteen subjects from a variety of backgrounds and places of origin responded to a questionnaire concerning their pre-and perinatal experiences and their present personality. Of particular interest were potential relationships between present personality and maternal drug use during pregnancy and labour, maternal stress during pregnancy, birth type, and physical placement immediately after birth. Responses were analyzed using non-parametric chi-square tests, t-tests, and point biserial correlations.

The Parenting Process in the Prenatal Period: A Developmental Theory
Publication Date: 01/1992
Author(s): Joann M O'Leary

ABSTRACT: It has long been accepted that there is a developmental process women progress through during pregnancy as they take on the parenting role. This paper develops a theory of the unborn baby's role during the prenatal period as an active instigator in this parenting role. Referring to the work of Arnold Gesell and adapting it to the prenatal period, the author theorizes that the unborn baby's growth and development drives the developmental process of the parenting role prenatally.

A Comparison of Emotional State and Support in Women at High and Low Risk for Preterm Birth, with Diabetes in Pregnancy, and in Non-Pregnant Professional Women
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Mary Lou Moore

The authors examine psychosocial factors involved in producing pregnancy complications. An initial descriptive study of the development of psychosocial profiles of three groups of pregnant women (high and low risk for preterm birth and with diabetes mellitus) using seven instruments is presented. The study suggests that economic status may be as important as medical risk as a source of distress among pregnant women.

Birth Trauma and Suicide: A Study of the Relationship Between Near-Death Experiences at Birth and Later Suicidal Behavior
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Jude Roedding

The relationship between birth trauma and suicide is discussed. A critique of psychoanalytic theory is presented. A number of studies linking suicide to birth trauma are surveyed. A synthetic theory of this relationship is described and the positive role of therapy in resolving birth trauma-related conflict is explored.

Effect of Receiving Genetic Counseling On Pre-Event Anxiety in Genetic Amniocentesis Patients
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Jo Ann B Ruiz-Bueno

Data were obtained as part of a larger experimental study of 48 genetic amniocentesis patients, ages 21 to 40. Information about genetic counseling was obtained through the demographic data questionnaire. State anxiety was measured before the procedure. Pre-event anxiety scores of women who had received genetic counseling before the day of the procedure were compared with those who had not received counseling before their appointment day.

Maternal Psychological Characteristics and Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Robert L Goldenberg

Scores on six psychosocial questionnaires were compared to the risk of delivering an IUGR infant. In the second trimester, scales for stress, anxiety, social support, mastery, self esteem, and depression were prospectively administered to 1500 indigent women. In univariate analyses, significant relationships were found between IUGR and a poor score for mastery, stress, anxiety and self-esteem. The results were additive in that the more poor the scores, the higher the rate of IUGR.

Prenatal Stress and Handedness Among Offspring
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Lee Ellis

Stressful experiences recalled by 270 mothers beginning a year prior to pregnancy through to the end of pregnancy were compared for right, left, and mixed handed offspring of both sexes. For the male offspring, mothers of left handers recalled significantly more severe stress throughout pregnancy than mothers of either right or mixed handers. For the female offspring, no significant differences were found.

Proto-Rhythms: Basis for the Birth of Musical Intelligence and Language Expression
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Ruth Fridman

This paper refers to the role of proto-rhythms in future musical acquisition as basis for the birth of musical intelligence and language expression. It also analyzes the role of rhythm in the very early vocal expressions of newborn babies and of the relation with expressions uttered between their 22nd and 24th months of age. The work presents transcriptions in musical symbols from the 1st cry up to the expressions of the year of life. Proto-rhythms are described and analyzed as well as their importance in back-feeding them.

Fantasy State During Pregnancy: A Psychoanalytic Account
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Laurie N Sherwen

Fantasy during pregnancy is a very common occurrence, especially during the third trimester. It is often disturbing to the woman, and may provide insights into client concerns of clinical relevance to the health care professional who delivers care to this population. This paper reports on a preliminary classification schema for third trimester fantasies, based on a survey of fantasies reported by pregnant women during this time period. Clinical examples of counseling situations using the schema to identify pregnant clients' problems and concerns are discussed.

Infant Outcomes of a Prenatal Stimulation Pilot Study
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Brent Logan

An evaluation of prelearning theory - which maintains that normative brain cell death prior to birth can be beneficially influenced by sensory imprinting - began in December 1986, providing progressive sonoral stimuli for a two-month fetus. These sequenced signals were adapted from the maternal blood pulse, as recorded by hydrophone in utero, thus conforming to the prenate's natural sonic environment; three hours of daily application lasted seven months, administered from a portable audiocassette player with transducers positioned on the abdomen.

Muscular Armoring in Labor: An Orgonomic (Bioenergetic) Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Richard A Blasband

Chronic armoring is a physiologic contraction of the musculature that begins in childhood and serves to protect the organism against inner feelings and threats from the outer world. By blocking the free flow of life energy through the longitudinal axis of the body, armoring inhibits spontaneous pulsation of organ systems and the organism as a whole. In childbirth armoring prevents easy surrender to the process of labor.

Report on Interviews with 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 year old children: Birth Memories
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Jeane Rhodes

Report on Research Project: Interviews with 2 ½ to 3 ½ Year Old Children Regarding Their Memories of Birth and the Pre-Natal Period

The Emotional Reactions of Parents to Their Premature Baby
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Michael T Hynan

Parents have a confusing variety of emotional reactions to the stress of a high-risk birth. Terror, grief, impotence, and anger are common feelings for these parents. Some of these reactions bring families closer together; at other times these emotions pull spouses apart. It is essential to recognize that even though these emotions are very troubling, they are normal experiences during a life-and-death crisis.

The Moon Hung on a Navelstring from the Dark: The Metaphor of Mother As Placenta and Its Effect on Parenting Concepts
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Joan Raphael-Leff

A psychosocial analysis explores some fantasies underpinning sexual asymmetry with emphasis on female childrearing and denial of maternal subjectivity. It is suggested that whereas in the past gender-role distinction between the sexes was rooted in procreativity, recent technological innovations have liberalized definitions in the West, offering greater choice and self-determination as we now can discriminate between sexuality, reproduction and childrearing.

Classification Rates and Relative Risk Factors for Perinatal Events Predicting Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in Children
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Ervin S Batchelor Jr

Perinatal factors were used to predict childhood emotional/behavioral disturbance using a discriminant analysis. A cross validation procedure was employed showing that 20 of 26 factors studied contributed to the separation between groups at clinical levels of accuracy. Frequencies, percentages, and relative risk factors were calculated for each perinatal factor and for the discriminant function. Results were used to argue to a multivariate approach in the examination of a relationship between perinatal events and development of emotional/behavioral disorders in children and adolescents.

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