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Sociocultural Factors and Perinatal Development of Baganda Infants: The Precocity Issue
Publication Date: 05/1990
Author(s): Janet E Kilbride

Infant development among the Baganda of Uganda is discussed from a sociocultural perspective. Cross-cultural examples which illustrate cultural effects on infant behavior are presented. In particular, the area of sensorimotor development is examined by means of a social survey, direct observations and formal testing during the Muganda infant's first six or eight months of life. The pattern of advancement found supports the view that parental values and childcare behaviors influence rate of infant sensorimotor development.

The Cultural Roots of the Canadian Birthing System
Publication Date: 05/1990
Author(s): Lois James-Chetelat

Cross-culturally, birthing practices can be better understood by examining the central belief system of a given culture. Through a discussion of the ideology, symbol, and value inherent within the central belief system of the Canadian society, that of science and technology, as well as by examining the historical development of obstetrics, it is possible to explain how a system of maternity care which over-emphasizes technology and de-emphasizes the woman's role in birthing has gained dominance in this country.

The Evolution of Helplessness in the Human Infant and Its Significance for Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology
Publication Date: 05/1990
Author(s): Wenda R Trevathan

As with most primates, optimal development in infancy proceeds with a high degree of intimacy and interaction between infants and caretakers. Human infants are less developed at birth than most primates because of selection for a greater percentage of brain growth to take place after birth than in utero.

Obstetrical Rituals and Cultural Anomaly: Part I
Publication Date: 03/1990
Author(s): Robbie Davis-Floyd

A constant reminder that babies come from women and nature, not from technology and culture, childbirth calls into question our attempts at technological dominance of nature, confronting American society with a series of conceptual dilemmas with practical, procedural ramifications: how to create a sense of cultural control over birth, a natural process resistant to such control? How to make a birth, a powerfully female phenomenon, reinforce, instead of undermine, the patriarchal system upon which American society is still based?

Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology in a Developing Country
Publication Date: 03/1990
Author(s): Melita Kovacevic

Psychology dates to the early part of the twentieth century in Yugoslavia, but developments in the science have been slow for a number of reasons. Lag in technological development and lack of financial support have been characteristic. Furthermore, sociocultural and economic differences between the regions have made an even development of pre- and perinatal psychological awareness impossible. There is now conflict between cultural values relative to pregnancy, the life of the fetus and abortion. Medical advances and social change have produced problems faster than they can be solved.

The Expanding Boundaries of Memory
Publication Date: 03/1990
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

In psychology, traditional studies have sought the boundaries of memory in specific brain structures thought to mark the beginning and limits of memory.

Recent discoveries in neuroscience suggest new brain processes and chronologies relevant to memory. Advances in brain research and instrumentation have clarified some memory pathways and permitted direct observation of the living brain but these studies obscure the real boundaries of memory.

The Relation Between Tachystoscopic Pictures and Neurotic Postpartum Depression: The Building of an Instrument
Publication Date: 03/1990
Author(s): Hélène David

Research is presented based upon perceptual defence theory relating to the possibility of detecting the risk of postpartum depression in pregnant women. The authors develop a tachystoscopic method and report on a study using the method on a sample of 43 French Canadian women. The method involves testing identification and reaction times to photographic stimuli related to perinatal issues.

Natalism as Pre and Perinatal Metaphor
Publication Date: 12/1989
Author(s): Michael C Irving

This paper explores the theory of Natalism which proposes that the symbolic expression of birth and prenatal consciousness can be found in art, mythology, and creative expression. Through clinical and empirical evidence our knowledge of the origins of awareness and memory is being pushed ever earlier. If pre- and perinatal experience affects personality, then we should see its tentacles in creative expression. Art flows from the deepest realms of the unconscious where the early roots of the human psyche are most active.

The Music Therapy-Assisted Childbirth Program: A Study Evaluation
Publication Date: 12/1989
Author(s): Carlos E Gonzalez

This program is geared towards raising a level of concern for the expectant parent about childbirth preparation, and the infant itself as an individual. The Music Therapy-Assisted Childbirth program attempts to facilitate 1) a reduction of stress for the working mother-to-be, in preparation for the birthing process, and 2) a more positive interaction between mother and child in the postnatal period.

Metaphors: The Language of Pre and Perinatal Trauma
Publication Date: 10/1989
Author(s): Sandra G Landsman

Verbal metaphors and their behavioral counterparts are discussed within the context of pre and perinatal issues. The major developmental stages are illustrated by the patient's use of language. These metaphors may emerge frequently in casual conversation or during periods of stress throughout life. As an example phrases such as "no way out" express the energy bound in prolonged labor and "being pulled in all directions" is related to a forceps assisted delivery. The baby's reaction to physical and psychological experiences during gestation may be discerned from verbal cues.

One Who Listens Speaks: An Interview With Dr. Alfred Tomatis [needs re-edit]
Publication Date: 10/1989
Author(s): Marie-Andrée Michaud

There is absolutely nothing so inviting for any speaker as a good listener. The wise clinician knows this; so does the good radio interviewer. Really making room for what another will say is a dynamic, active affair. This is at the core of Alfred Tomatis' work over the years. Thousands know him as a uniquely sympathetic listener who, when he speaks, goes right to the point-often the deepest and most intimate point-of their lives. "I like to practice counseling just as I once did surgery," he says.

The Biopolitics of Womb Life: Science Beats a Path To The Unborn And Stumbles Over Some Moral Dilemmas
Publication Date: 10/1989
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

Clifford Grobstein, we are told on the jacket of his book, Science & The Unborn, was at one time a laboratory scientist, teacher, medical school dean and "an analyst of biomedical policy." The reader would have been better served had he been given some more specific information about Grobstein's educational background. Was he a surgeon, an obstetrician, a psychologist, a philosopher or what?

The Psychological Aspects of In-Vitro Fertilization
Publication Date: 10/1989
Author(s): Nancy Hurwitz Kors

Infertility is a life crisis that affects all aspects of a couple's life. When they enter an in-vitro fertilization program the trauma and emotional stress becomes intensified.

The first section of this paper will review the psychological components of infertility. The second section shall focus on the psychological issues which apply specifically to in-vitro patients. In the last section, suggestions for primary care physicians who are directly involved in IVF programs will be made.

Babies Remember Pain
Publication Date: 05/1989
Author(s): David B Chamberlain

Babies have been crying at birth for centuries but we have been reluctant to accept their cries as valid expressions of pain which will register in memory. Despite mounting evidence, the characteristic reaction of psychologists and medical practitioners to infant pain has been one of denial. Key myths about the brain have provided the rationale for painful procedures. Against this background, studies of the infant cry prove that crying is meaningful communication. Examples of prenatal and perinatal cries are examined.

Maternal Stress and Fetal Motor Behavior: A Preliminary Report
Publication Date: 05/1989
Author(s): Nicolino Rossi

Fetal motility was observed by ultrasound scan in 15 pregnant women awaiting amniocentesis, in order to assess the effects of maternal stress on fetal motor behavior. Amniocentesis was considered a stress situation giving rise to maternal anxiety not artificially induced. The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women undergoing routine ultrasound examination. Fetal motor activity was assessed in terms of quantity and quality. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S.T.A.I.). Fetuses showed a significantly higher motor activity (p

Foundation Funding and Psychiatric Research
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Diana Kim

Support for psychiatric research is limited to a relatively small number of funding sources. Foundations-nonprofit entities that support a variety of social, medical, educational, and other activities-are a potentially important source. The authors describe the role and structure of foundations, discuss historical trends in foundation support for research in mental illness, and present the results of a study of the extent to which foundations support mental health research.

Psychotherapy with Infants and Children
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): William R Emerson

This article describes the basic parameters of psychotherapy for infants and children. The essential core of the therapy is described as relational, requiring empathy and compassionate contact. Fundamental techniques to uncover pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed, and research results from 15 years of development and evaluation are summarized. Successful treatment requires cooperative efforts of parents, physicians, nurses, midwives, psychotherapists, chiropractors, cranial osteopaths, and others.

The Inquiry Into Prenatal Musical Experience: A Report of the Eastman Project 1980-1987
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Donald J Shetler

This paper describes early research and current trends in prenatal brain growth, development of the auditory system, and characteristics of the fetal environment including auditory stimuli. Questions which initiated the investigator's longitudinal study of pre and postnatal response to musical stimuli are discussed.

The protocol for the research, nature of specific musical stimulus sources, pre and postnatal behavioral response, and implications for accelerated musical and speech development are discussed.

The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology-Part 1
Publication Date: 03/1989
Author(s): Thomas R Verny

This paper deals with three significant parameters of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology from a research perspective. First, the development and function of the CNS is examined with particular emphasis on myelination, audiology, EEG studies and neonatal behaviour. Next, advances in our knowledge of intrauterine learning are reviewed. Lastly, the effect of perinatal trauma on personality development is considered.

Maternal Report of Perinatal Information as a Predictor of Cardiopulmonary Functioning in the Neonate
Publication Date: 12/1988
Author(s): Jeffrey W Gray

This study examined the relationship between neonates cardiopulmonary condition and relevant information from the perinatal period. Multiple regression analyses showed that a linear composite of mother's report of perinatal information accounted for a significant amount of the variability in three of the five APGAR components at one minute (i.e., Heart Rate, Respiratory Effort, and Reflex Irritability) and all five APGAR components at five minutes. The results were interpreted as lending support to the utility of structured maternal report of perinatal information.