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Babies are not what we thought they were in the 19th century or even twenty five years ago. Abundant new findings from experimental research, psychotherapy, and anecdotal reports have rendered traditional views of human development obsolete, yet many obstetricians and psychologists continue to view babies in 19th century terms. The author summarizes this view and its failings and assembles the evidence for a new paradigm that babies, of whatever age, are aware, expressive, and affected by their interactions with others.


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David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D.