Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Publication Date: 
October, 2014
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 
Brief Summary: 

Abstract: This article presents the results and discussion portions of the author’s dissertation research (submitted in 2009 to the Santa Barbara Graduate Institute) that are relevant to the conversations centered in attribute development of PPN professionals. The author’s dissertation, Prenatal and Perinatal Therapists’ Experiences of the Psycho-therapeutic Alliance: A Mixed Method Exploration, investigated prenatal and perinatal therapists’ experiences of practicing therapy, exploring the unique and common areas of what it is to specialize in this therapeutic modality. Key themes emerged as a result of this doctoral research. By reviewing the findings of this research, the reader will gain greater insight in what are shared experiences in this specialized practice as well as provide a grounding structure to spark further discussion and inquiry that supports the continuing embodiment of the field of prenatal and perinatal psychology.


Alberts G., & Edelstein, B. (1990). Therapist training:  A critical review of skill training studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(5), 497-511.
Asay, T., & Lambert, M. (1999). The empirical case for the common factors in therapy. In M. Hubble, B. Duncan, & S. Miller (Eds.), The heart and soul of change (pp. 23-56). Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.
Bachelor, A., & Horvath, A. (1999). The therapeutic relationship. In M. A. Hubble, B. L. Duncan, & S. D. Miller, (Eds.), The heart and soul of change:  What works in therapy (pp. 133-178). Washington, D.C.:  American Psychological Association.
Baradon, T. (2002). Psychotherapeutic work with parents and infants:  Psychoanalytic and attachment perspectives. Attachment and Human Development, 4(1), 25-38.
Brandon S., Boakes J., Glaser D., & Green R.(1998). Recovered Memories of childhood sexual abuse:  Implications for clinical practice. British Journal of Psychiatry 172, 296–307.
Castellino, R. (2000). The stress matrix:  Implications for prenatal and birth therapy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 15(1), 31-62.
Centers for Disease Control. (2014). 2012 assisted reproductive technology success rates. Retrieved August 20, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/ART.html
Chamberlain, D. (1986). Reliability of birth memory:  Observations from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Journal of the American Academy of Medical
Hypnoanalysts, 1(2), 89-98.
Chamberlain, D. (1994). How pre- and perinatal psychology can transform the world. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 8(3), 187-200.
Churchill, S. (2006). Phenomenological analysis:  Impression formation during a clinical assessment interview. In C. Fischer (Ed.), Qualitative research methods for psychologists (pp. 79-110). Burlington, MA:  Academic Press.
Collins, K., Onwuegbuzie, A., & Sutton, I. (2006) A model incorporating the rationale and purpose for conducting mixed-method research in special education and beyond. Learning Disabilities:  A Contemporary Journal, 4(1), 67-100.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.
Dunkle, J., & Friedlander, M. (1996) Contribution of therapist experience and personal characteristics to the working alliance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 456- 460.
Emde, R., Bertacchi, J., & Mann, T. (2001, Aug.-Sept). Organizational environments that support mental health. Zero to Three Journal, 17-22.
Emerson, W. (2001). Emerson recapitulation theory. Petaluma, CA:  Emerson Training Seminars.
Emerson, W. (2002). Somatotropic therapy. Journal of Heart-Centered Therapies, 5(2), 65-90.
Fosha, D., & Yeung, D. (2006). ADEP exemplifies the seamless integration of emotional transformation and dyadic relatedness at work. In G. Stricker & J. Gold (Eds.), A casebook of integrative psychotherapy (pp. 165-184). Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association Press.
Jue, R. W. (1996). Past-life therapy. In Scotton, B. W., Chinen, A. B., & Battista, J. R. (Eds.) Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology. (pp. 377–387). New York:  Basic Books.
Kim-Cohen, J., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Williams, B., Newcomb, R., Craig, I.W., & Moffitt, T. E.(2006). MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children’s mental health:  New evidence and a meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry (11), pp.903–913.
Lyman, B. (2005). Prenatal and perinatal psychotherapy with adults:  An integrated model for empirical testing. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 20(1), 58-76.
Lyman, B. (2008). Prenatal and perinatal trauma case formulation:  Towards an evidence-based assessment of the origins of repetitive behaviors in adults. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 22(3), 189-218.
Lucas, P. (2009). Prenatal and Perinatal therapists’ Experiences of the Psycho-therapeutic Alliance:  A mixed method exploration. Dissertation Abstracts International.
Martin, D., Garske, J., & Davis, M. (2000). Relation of the therapeutic alliance with
outcome in psychotherapy:  A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 68, 438-450.
McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs:  What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 16(4), 341-360.
McEwan, J., & Duncan, P. (1993). Personal therapy in the training of psychologists. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 34(2) 186-197.
Mohr, J., Gelso, C., & Hill, C. (2005). Client and counselor trainee attachment as predictors of session evaluation and countertransference behavior in first
counseling sessions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 298-309.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications.
Neswald-MacCalip, R. (2001). Development of the secure counselor:  Case examples supporting Pistole and Watkins’s (1995) discussion of attachment theory in
counseling supervision. Counselor Education & Supervision, 41(1), 18-28.
Oakes, L. (2000). An investigation of the content and impact of therapist use of self-reference. Retrieved from Dissertation Abstracts International (Vol. 60(8-B), 4242)
Onwuegbuzie, A., & Leech, N. (2006). Linking research questions to mixed methods data analysis procedures. The Qualitative Report, 11(3), 474-498.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.
Schore, A. (2003). Affect regulation and the repair of the self. New York:  Norton and Company.
Siegal, D. (1999). The developing mind:  Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York:  The Guilford Press.
Siqueland, L., Crits-Christoph, P., Barber, J., Butler, S., Thase, M., Najavits, L., & Onken, L.S. (2000). The role of therapist characteristics in training effects in cognitive, supportive-expressive, and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice & Research, 9(3), 123-130.
Sparks, J., Duncan, B., & Miller, S. (2008). Common factors in psychotherapy. In J. Lebow (Ed.), Twenty-first century psychotherapies:  Contemporary approaches to
theory and practice (pp. 453-497), New York:  John Wiley & Sons.
Summers, R., & Barber, J. (2003). Therapeutic alliance as a measurable psychotherapy skill. Academic Psychiatry, 27(3), 160-165.
Taylor, S., & Bogdan, R. (1984). Introduction to qualitative research design. New York:  John Wiley and Sons.
Thomson, P. (2007). “Down will come baby”:  Prenatal stress, primitive defenses and gestational dysregulation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 8, 85-113.
Tronick, E. (2003). “Of course all relationships are unique”:  How co-creative processes generate unique mother-infant and patient–therapist relationships and change other relationships. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(3), 473-491.
Trusty, J., Kok-Mun, Ng., & Watts, R. (2005). Model of effects of adult attachment on emotional empathy of counseling students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 83, 66-77.
Verny, T. (1986). The psycho-technology of pregnancy and labor. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 1(1), 161-186.
Verny, T. & Eichhorn, D. (1999). The biopsychosocial transactional model of development:  The beginning of the formation of an emergent sense of self in the
newborn. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(3-4), 223-234.
Wade, J. (1998a). Two Voices in the womb:  Evidence for physically transcendent and a cellular source of fetal consciousness. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal
Psychology and Health, 13(2), 123-147.
Wade, J. (1998b). Physically transcendent awareness:  A comparison of the phenomenology of consciousness before birth and after death. Journal of Near
Death Studies, 16(4), 249- 275.
Weatherston, D. (2005). Returning the treasure to babies:  An introduction to mental health service and training. In Finello, K. (Ed.), The handbook of training and practice in infant and preschool mental health (pp. 3-30). San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.
Wiseman, H. & Shefler, G. (2001). Experienced psychoanalytically oriented therapists’ narrative accounts of their personal therapy:  Impacts on professional and personal development. Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(2), 129-141.
Zhan, Q; Pan, P; Xu,X; Lou, H; Lou, Y; Jin, F.(2013). An overview of studies on psychological well-being in children born following assisted reproductive technologies. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 14(11), 947–960.