Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
In a village in Egypt two patterns of infant and child rearing were observed. Uneducated mothers living in extended families used a high contact style of infant rearing and child nurses to produce children who were cooperative, family oriented and highly attached to their mother. Educated women living in nuclear families used a low contact style of infant rearing and adult caretakers to produce children who were ego oriented and able to achieve independently of their family. I hypothesize that these styles were adopted in order to produce children with the qualities necessary to fulfill their parents' expectations.
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1977). Infant development and mother infant interaction among Ganda and American families. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Barry, H. and Paxson, L.M. (1971). Infancy and early childhood: Cross-cultural codes 2. Ethnology. 10, 466-491.
Blurton Jones, N.G. (1972). Comparative aspects of mother-child contact. In N.G. Blurton Jones (Ed.) Ethnological studies of child behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brazelton, T.B. (1977). Implications of infant development among Maya indians of Mexico. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.) Culture and Infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Brink, J.H. (1985). The effect of education and employment on the status of rural Egyptian women, Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms.
Brink, J.H. (19-). Changing child rearing patterns in an Egyptian village. In E. Fernea (Ed.). Childhood in the Middle East. Austin: University of Texas Press (in Press).
Burton, R. & Ries, J. (1981). Internalization. In R.H. Munroe, R.L. Munroe and B.B. Whiting (Eds.) Handbook of cross-cultural human development. New York: Garland Press.
Clignet, R. (1967). Environmental change, types of descent and child rearing practices. In H. Miner (Ed.). The city in Africa. New York: Praeger.
Eaton, S.B., Shostak, M. & Konner, M. (1988). Paleolithic prescription. New York: Harper and Row.
Ember, C. (1973). Feminine task assignment and the social behavior of boys. Ethos. 1, 424-439.
Goldberg, S. (1977). Infant development and mother infant interaction in urban Zambia. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin, and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Kilbride, P.L. & Kilbride, J. (1990). Changing family life in East Africa: Women and children at risk. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Kilbride, P.L. & Kilbride, J. (1990a). Socioculturel factors of Baganda infants: The precocity issue. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal. 4(4), 238-296.
Konner, M.J. (1977). Infancy among the Kalahari Desert San. In P.H. Leiderman, S.R. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Kuczynski, L. (1984). Socialization goals and mother-child interaction: Strategies for long term and short term compliance. Developmental Psychology 20(6), 1061-1073.
Laughlin, C.D. (1989). Pre- and perinatal anthropology: A selective review. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 3(4), 270-281.
Levine, R.A. (1977). Child rearing as cultural adaption. In P.H. Leiderman, S. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Levine, R.A. (1980). Anthropology and child development. In C. Super and S. Harkness (Eds.). New directions for child development San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Leiderman, P.H. and Leiderman, G.F. (1977). Economic Change and infant care. In P.H. Leiderman, S. Tulkin and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the Human Experience. New York: Academic Press.
Lloyd, B.B. (1978) Yoruba mothers' reports of child-rearing: Some theoretical and methodological considerations, in P. Mayer (Ed.) Socialization: The approach from social anthropology. London:Tavistock.
Londerville, S. & Main, M. (1981). Security of attachment, compliance and maternal training methods in the second year of life. Developmental Psychology 17(3), 289-299.
Maccoby, E.E. (1984). Socialization and developmental change. Child Development. 55, 317-328.
McClelland, D.C. (1976). The achieving society. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Matas, L., Arend, R.A. & Stroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaption in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child Development. 49, 547-556.
Munroe, R.H. & Munroe, R.L. (1971). Household density and infant care in an East African society. Journal of Social Psychology. 83-13.
Munroe, R.H. & Munroe, R.L. (1984). Infant experience and childhood cognition: A longitudinal study among the Logoli of Kenya. Ethos 12(4), 291-306.
Prothro, E.T. (1961). Child rearing in the Lebanon. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Schaffer, H., Emerson, R. & Emerson, P.E. (1973). The development of social attachments in infancy. In S. Scarr-Salapatek and P. Salapatek (Eds.). Socialization. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publisher.
Seymour, S. (1981). Cooperation and competition: Some .issues and problems in crosscultural analysis. In R.H. Munroe, R.L. Munroe, and B. Whiting (Eds.). Handbook of cross-cultural human development. New York: Garland Press.
Super, C.M. (1981). Behavioral development in infancy. In R.H. Munroe, R.L. Munroe and B. Whiting (Eds.). Handbook of cross-cultural human development New York: Garland Press.
Super, C.M. and Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface of child and culture. International Journal of Behavioral Development 9(4), 545-569.
Trevathan, W.R. (1990). The evolution of helplessness in the human infant and its significance for pre- and peri-natal psychology. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology. 4(4), 267-280.
Tulkin, S.R. (1977). Dimensions of multicultural research. In S.R. Tulkin, P.H. Leiderman and A. Rosenfeld (Eds.). Culture and infancy: Variations in the human experience. New York: Academic Press.
Weisner, T.S. and Gallimore, R. (1977). My brother's keeper: Child and sibling caretaking. Current Anthropology. 18(2), 169-190.
Werner, E.E. (1979). Cross-cultural child development A view from the planet earth. Monterray, California: Brooks Cole.
Whiting, B. and Edwards, C. (1988). Children of different worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Whiting, J. (1961). Socialization process and personality. In F. Hsu (Ed.). Psychological anthropology. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press.
Whiting, J. (1981). Environmental constraints on infant care practices. In R.H. Munroe, R. Munroe and B. Whiting (Eds.). Handbook of cross-cultural human development New York: Garland Press.
Judy H. Brink, Ph.D.
Judy Brink is an associate professor of anthropology at Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, Pa. 17745. Her research in Egypt has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the Mellon Foundation and by the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Her research has documented the effects of modern education and wage labor on other aspects of rural Egypt; women's status (University Microfilms 1985), the extended family (Urban Anthroplogy 1987), the village economy (Cairo Papers in Social Science 1991) and labor migration (International Journal of Middle East Studies 1991). Address correspondence to Lock Haven University, 102 Thomas Annex, Lock Haven, PA 17745.