Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Publication Date: 
March, 2004
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 

A mother's violent behavior toward her child is related to her psychological well-being. Mothers who were violent with their children had been raised by a mother with an inappropriate parenting attitude. Anxiety related to this attitude was also associated with violent maternal behavior. Mothers who demonstrated low level of attachment to their child from the fetus to 4 years of age engaged in violence toward their 4-year-old children. Maternal violence was also associated with decreased bonding with the baby during pregnancy. Comparisons of children of violent mothers with those of non-violent mothers showed that the former had significantly more frequent problem behaviors.

KEY WORDS: Maternal violence, prenatal, longitudinal study, attachment, mother-child relationship.


Campbell, S. B. & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Follow-up of hard-to-manage preschoolers: Adjustment age 3 and predictors of continuing symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 871-889.

Eyberg, S. M. (1992). Parent and teacher behavior inventories for the assessment of conduct problem behavior hi children. In Vandecreek, L. Knapp, S. & Jackson, T. L. (Ed) Innovation in Clinical Practice: A Source Book (Vol.11). Professional Resource Press.

Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R. & Algina, J. (1995). Parent-child interaction therapy: A psychosocial model for the treatment of young children with conduct problem behavior and their families. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 83-91.

Fischer, M., Rolf, J. E., Hzsazi, J. E., & Cummings, L. (1984). Follow-up of a preschool epidemiological sample: Cross-age continuities and predictions of later adjustment with internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior. Child Development, 55, 137-150.

Hanazawa, S. (1992). Maternal Psychology. Igakushoin, Japan.

Loeber, R., & Stouthamer- Loeber, M. (1987). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency In M. Tony & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research (29-149). University of Chicago Press.

McGee, R., Silva, P. A. & William, S. (1984). Perinatal, neurological, environmental and developmental characteristics of seven-year-old children with stable behavior problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 573-586.

Morton, N. & Browne, K. D. (1998). Theory and observation of attachment and its relation to child maltreatment: review, Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(11), 1093-1104.

Muller, M. E. (1993). Development of the prenatal attachment inventory. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 15(2), 199-215.

Muller, M. E. (1994). A questionnaire to measure mother-to-infant attachment. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 2(2), 129-141.

Paker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown L. B. (1979). Parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.

Querido, J. G., Warner, T. D. & Eyberg, S. M. (2002). Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 31(2), 272-277.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.

Sameroff, A. J. & Emde, R. N. (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood: a developmental approach. Basic Books, Inc.

Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI Manual. Consulting Psychologist Press, 23-49.

Stern, D. N. (1985). The Interpersonal Word of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. Basic Books, Inc.

Tsujino, J., Oyama Higa, M. & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment; longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

Widom, C. S. (2000). Motivation and mechanisms in the "Cycle of Violence." In Hansen, D. J. (Ed.), Motivation and Child Maltreatment (1-37). University of Nebraska Press.

Junko Tsujino, D. Educ. Psych, and Mayumi Oyama Higa, D. Eng.

Junko Tsujino, D. Educ. Psych, is a researcher at the Center for Information and Media Studies and Mayumi Oyama Higa, D. Eng. is a professor in the School of Humanities, both at Kwansei Gakuin University in Hyogo, Japan. Correspondence regarding this article should go to Junko Tsujino: tsujino@hcc6.bai.ne.jp.