Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
This qualitative study focuses on the experience of healing through prenatal and perinatal recall. Interviews were conducted with seven adults who variously attested to having healed conditions of: syncope, phobias, arthritis, asthma, migraines, depression, suicidality, obsessive-compulsion, side pain, and dysfunctional interpersonal patterns. Intentions were to: (a) illuminate the experience, (b) examine the benefits and drawbacks, and (c) underscore the impact of obstetric intervention.
Literature Review: Reviewed literature includes research on transcendent, fetal, cellular, and somatic memory/consciousness (within a holonomic paradigm), current repression and false memory debates, hypnosis, breathwork, psychedelic, and primal psychotherapies, somatotropic therapy with infants and children, and obstetric intervention.
Method: Existential-phenomenological research methods were used with Hycner's (1982) 15-step analysis for interview data. Two in-depth interviews, a demographics form, and a follow-up question were the instruments used to access data.
Results: Data analysis revealed seven individual, two unique, and two general themes. The general themes included: "A Range of Intensely Felt, Mostly Negative, Emotional, Physical, or Feeling States, and Transpersonal Experiences," which captured the structural underpinnings of the phenomenon, and were expressed by all seven participants. All seven remembered pre- or perinatal trauma, and subsequent child abuse. Three remembered deleterious effects from obstetric intervention including long-term depression, slowed labor from anesthesia, pain from forceps, and vertigo from inversion at birth. After treatment all co-researchers felt the mitigation of psychological and/or physical conditions they had suffered.
Conclusions: Results imply fetal/neonatal memory/consciousness and the need for research into the long and short term effects of obstetric procedures. Trauma occurring during and before parturition may cause life-long physical and/or psychological illness. The resolution of such illness may necessitate intervention at pre- or perinatal levels of memory/consciousness and that the parental relationship and maternal readiness for labor and delivery may be indicators of subsequent traumatic labor and delivery, and/ or child abuse.
Alpert, J. L. (1995). Professional practice, psychological science, and the delayed memory debate. In J. Alpert (Ed.),Sexual abuse recalled: Treating trauma in the era of the recovered memory debate. New Jersey: Jason Aronson, Inc.
Alpert, J. L., Brown, L. S., Ceci, S. J., Courtois, C. A., Loftus, E., & Ornstein, P. A. (1996). Final conclusions of the APA working group on the investigation of memories of childhood abuse. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association
Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paid.
Bowers, K. S. & Farvolden, P. (1996). Revisiting a century-old Freudian slip-From suggestion disavowed to the truth repressed. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 3, 355-380.
Brandon, S., Boakes, J., Glaser, D., & Green, R. (1998). Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: Implications for clinical practice. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 296-307.
Buchheimer, A. (1983). Memory-Preverbal and verbal. Paper presented at the meeting of the 1st International Congress of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology, Toronto, Ontario.
Buchheimer, A. (1987). Graham Farrant interviewed at Appel Farm, Sunday, August 31, 1986. Aesthema, 7,40-45.
Campbell, B.A. & Spear, N.B. (1972). Ontogeny of memory. Psychological Review, 79, 215-31.
Campbell, B. A., Misanin, J.R., White, B.C., & Lytle, L.D. (1974). Indirect support for neural maturation as a determinant of forgetting. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 87, 2, 193-202.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1986). Reliability of birth memories: Evidence from mother and child pairs in hypnosis, Journal of the American Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysts, 1,(2), 89-98.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc.
Cheek, D. B. (1986). Prenatal and perinatal imprints: Apparent prenatal consciousness as revealed by hypnosis. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7, (2), 125-138.
DeCasper, A. & Spence, M. (1982). Prenatal maternal speech influences human newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133-150.
Eisenberg, A. R. (1985). Learning to describe past experiences in conversation. Discourse Processes, 8, 177-204.
Emerson, W. R. (1978). Birth and life: The hazy mirrors. European Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 6, 17-23.
Emerson, W. R. (1987). Primal therapy with infants. Aesthema, 7, 61-67.
Emerson, W. R. (1998). Birth trauma: The psychological effects of obstetrical interventions. Published in abstract form as a chapter hi L. Janus & S. Haibach seelisches (Eds.), Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13, (1), 11-44.
Ewin, D. M. (1994). Many memories retrieved with hypnosis are accurate. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 36, 3, 174-176.
Farrant, G. (1983). Cellular consciousness, a video. Boston: NOVA/WBGH Transcripts, 125 Western Ave. Boston, Mass. 02134
Freud, S. (1896/1974). The etiology of hysteria. London: Hogarth Press and Penguin Books.
Freud, S. (1919/1954). Introduction to psychoanalysis and the war neuroses. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, 17, (pp. 207-210). London: Hogarth Press.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Holmes, D.S. (1974). Investigations of repression: Differential recall of material experimentally or naturally associated with ego threat. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 632-653.
Holmes, D.S. (1990). The evidence for repression: An examination of sixty years of research. In J.L. Singer (Ed.), Repression and dissociation: Implications for personality theory, psychopathology, and health (pp. 85-102). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Howe, M. L., & Courage, M. L., (1993). On resolving the enigma of infantile amnesia. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 305-326.
Hycner, R. (1982). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. Unpublished material.
Jacobs, W.J. & Nadel, L. (1985). Stress-induced recovery of fears and phobias. Psychological Review, 98, 512-531.
Janet, P. (1889). L'Automatisme Psychologique. Paris: Alcan.
Janov, A. (1976). Pain in sleep: An analysis of the mechanism of repression. Journal of Primal Therapy, 3, (2), 121-158.
Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
Karon, B. P., & Widener, A. J. (1998). Repressed memories: The real story. Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 29, (5), 482-487.
Khamsi, S. K. (1987). Birth feelings: A phenomenological approach. Aesthema 7, 13-27.
Kihlstrom, J. F. (1997). Hypnosis, memory and amnesia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 29, 1727-32.
Kolb, L.C. & Multipass!, L.R. (1982). The conditioned emotional response: A subclass of chronic and delayed post traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 12, 979-987.
Lashley, K.S. (1929). Brain mechanisms and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lashley, K. S. (1960). The neuropsychology of Lashley. New York: McGraw Hill.
Leboyer, F. (1976). Birth without violence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Lindsay, D. S. (1997). Increasing sensitivity. In J. D. Read & D. S. Lindsay (Eds.), Recollections of trauma: Scientific evidence and clinical practice. New York and London: Plenum Press.
Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist 48, 518535.
Loftus, E.F. & Ketcham, K. (1991). Witness for the defense: The accused, the eyewitness, and the expert who puts memory on trial. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Loftus, E.F. & Ketcham, K. (1994). The myth of repressed memory: False memories and allegations of sexual abuse. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Lorenz, K. (1935). Imprinting. Journal of Ornithology, 83, 137.
McConnell, J. V. (1962). Memory transfer through cannibalism in planarians. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 3 (Supplement 1), 42-48.
Nichols, C. (1996). Meeting the unborn: A phenomenological inquiry into prenatal and birth experience. Unpublished master's thesis, College of Notre Dame, Belmont, CA.
Ofshe, R.J. & Waiters, E. (1993). Making monsters. Society, 30, 4-16.
Pearce, J. C. (1992). Evolution's end. San Francisco: Harper.
Penfleld, W. (1959). The excitable cortex in conscious man. Springfield, IL.: Charles C. Thomas.
Penfield, W. (1975). The mystery of the mind. Princeton and London: Princeton University Press.
Pert, C. (1987b). Neuropeptides, the emotions and bodymind. In J. Spong (Ed.), Proceedings of the symposium on consciousness and survival, (pp. 79-89). Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Pert, C., Ruff, M., Weber, R.J. & Herkenham, M. (1985). Neuropeptides and their receptors: a psychosomatic network. Journal of Immunology, 135, (2), Supplement, 820826.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in the child. New York: Basic Books.
Pillemer, D. B. & White, S. H. (1989). Childhood events recalled by children and adults. Advances in Child Development, 21, 298-340.
Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: An observational and psychoanalytic study. New York: Tavistock/Routledge.
Pope, H.G. & Hudson, J.I. (1995). Can memories of childhood sexual abuse be repressed? Psychological Medicine, 25, 121-26.
Prescott, J.W. (1995, September/October). The origins of human love and violence. Monograph presented at the 7th International Congress of the Association for Pre- and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, Ca.
Pribram, K.H. (1971). Languages of the brain. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Pribram, K. H. (1982). What the fuss is all about. In K. Wilber's, The holographic paradigm and other paradoxes. Boulder and London: Shambala.
Pribram, K. H. (1986). The cognitive revolution and mind/brain issues. American Psychologist, 41, 507-520.
Raikov, V.L. (1980). Age regression to infancy by adult subjects in deep hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, (3), 156-163.
Rossi, E. R., & Cheek, D. B. (1988). Mind-body therapy: Methods ofideodynamic healing in hypnosis. New York: W. W. Norton.
Ruch, H. (1986). The experience of being born as recalled in adulthood. (Doctoral dissertation, Union Graduate School, 1986). UMl Dissertation Services. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International.
Salk, L., Lipsitt, L., Stumer, W. Reilly, B. Levat, R., (1985). Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet, 1, 624-627.
Sallenbach, W. B. (1994). Claira: A case study in prenatal learning. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9, (1), 33-56.
Sheldrake, R. (1995). Nature as alive: Morphic resonance and collective memory. Primal Renaissance: The Journal of Primal Psychology, 1, (1), 65-78.
Smith, S. E. (1995). Survivor psychology: The dark side of a mental health mission. Boca Raton, FL: Upton Books.
Sutich, A. (1969). Some considerations regarding transpersonal psychology. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1, (1), 11-20.
Terr, L.C. (1994). Unchained memories: True stories of traumatic memory, lost and found. New York: Basic Books.
Ungar, G. (1967). Transfer of learned behavior by brain extracts. Journal of Biological Psychology, 9, 12-27.
van der KoIk, B.A. (1994). The body keeps the score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of post traumatic stress. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 1, 253-265.
van der KoIk, B.A., (1996). The body keeps the score. In B.A. van der KoIk, A. C. McFarlane & L. Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body and society. New York: The Guilford Press.
van der KoIk, B.A. & Ducey, C.P. (1989). The psychological processing of traumatic experience: Rorschach patterns hi PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 259-274.
van der KoIk, B.A., & van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Image, 48, (4), 425-454.
Verny, T. R. & Kelly, J. (1982). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell Publishing.
Wade, J. (1996). Changes of mind. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.
Wakefield, H. & Underwager, R. (1994). Return of the furies. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.
Wolfgram, C. & Goldstein, M.L. (1987). The search for the physical basis of memory. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 65-68.
Anne Marquez, Ph.D.
This paper is extracted from Dr. Anne Marquez's dissertation titled, Healing through the remembrance of the pre- and perinatal: A phenomenological investigation. Dr. Marquez is a graduate of the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology and has degrees in both social work and psychology. Direct correspondence to: 59 Varda St. Rohnert Park, California 94928 Tel: (707) 792-2663