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March, 1999
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Campbell, Don. (1997). The Mozart Effect, New York: Avon Books.

Chamberlain, David B. (1994). The sentient prenate: What every parent should know. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(1), 9-31.

Chamberlain, David B. (1998). Prenatal receptivity and intelligence. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 12(3 and 4), 95-117.

Clements, Michele (1977). Observations on certain aspects of neonatal behavior in response to auditory stimuli. Paper presented to the 5th Internat. Congress of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rome.

DeCasper, A. and Sigafoos. (1983). The intrauterine heartbeat: A potent reinforcer for newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 19-25.

DeCasper, A. and Spence. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133-150.

Deliege, Irene and Sloboda, John (Eds.). (1996). Musical Beginnings, Oxford University Press.

Gilmor, Timothy M. and Madaule, Paul P. (1984). The Tomatis Anthology. Toronto: The Listening Centre.

Odent, Michel. (1984). Birth Reborn. New York: Pantheon Books.

Shahidullah, Sara and Hepper, Peter. (1992). Hearing in the fetus: Prenatal detection of deafness. Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(3 and 4), 235-240.

Shetler, Donald J. (1989). The inquiry into prenatal musical experience: A report of the Eastman Project 1980-1987. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 3(3), 171-189.

Whitwell, David. (1993). Music As A Language: A New Philosophy Of Music Education. Northridge, CA: Winds.

Woodward, Sheila C. (1992). The Transmission Of Music Into The Human Uterus And The Response To Music Of The Human Fetus And Neonate (Doctoral Thesis, Dept. of Music Education, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Zentner, Marcel R. and Kagan, Jerome. (1998). Infant's perception of consonance and dissonance in music. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(3), 483-492.


Birnholz, J. C. and Benacerraf, B. B. (1983). The development of the human fetal hearing. Science, 222, 516-18.

DeCasper, A. J. and Sigafoos, A. D. (1983). The intrauterine heartbeat: A potent reinforcer for newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 6, 19-25.

deMause, L. (1982). Foundations of psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots.

Gelman, S. R., Wood, S., Spellacy, W. N. and Abrams, R. M. (1982). Fetal movements ; in response to sound stimulation. American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 143, 484-485.

Hepper, P. G. (1991). An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 95-107.

Johansson, B., Wedenberg, E., and Westin, B. (1964). Measurement of tone response by : the human fetus. A preliminary report. Acta Otolaryngologica, 57, 188-192.

Luz, N. P., Lima, C. P., Luz, D. H., & Feldens, V. L. (1980). Auditory evoked responses of the human fetus. I. Behavior during progress of labor. Acta Obstetrica Gynecologica Scandinavica, 59, 395-404.

Luz, N. P. (1985). Auditory evoked responses in the human fetus. II. Modifications i observed during labor. Acta Obstetrica Gynecologica Scandinavica, 64, 213-22.

Montagu, A. (1962). Prenatal influences. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas.

Murooka H., Koie Y., & Suda N. (1976). Analyse des sons intra-uterins et leurs effets tranquil-lisants sur le nouveau. Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics: Biologie de la Reproduction, 5, 367-376.

Polverini-Rey, R. A. (1992). Intrauterine musical learning: the soothing effect on newborns of a lullaby learned prenatally. Dissertation Abstracts # 9233740.

Pujol, R., Lavigne-Rebillard, M., and Uziel, A. (1991). Development of the human cochlea. Acta Otolaryngologica, 482, 7-12.

Querleu, D., Renard, S., and Versyp, F. (1981). Les perceptions auditives du foetus humain. Medecine et Hygiene, 39, 2101-10.

Rosner, B. S., & Doherty, N. E. (1979). The response of neonates to intra-uterine sounds. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 21, 723-729.

Salk, L. (1962). Mother's heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series 2, 4, 753-63.

Salk, L. (1960). The effects of the normal heartbeat sound on the behavior of newborn infant: implications for mental health. World Mental Health, 12, 1-8.

Sallenbach, W. B. (1998). Claira: A case study in prenatal learning. Journal of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 12(3-4), 175-196.

Satt, B. J. (1984). An investigation into the acoustical induction of intra-uterine learning. Ph.D Dissertation, Californian School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.

Shetler, Donald J. (1989). The Inquiry Into Prenatal Musical Experience: A Report of the Eastman Project 1980-1987. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(3), 171-189.

Szmeja, Z., Slomko, Z., Sikorski, K., and Sowinski, H. (1979) The risk of hearing impairment in children from mothers exposed to noise during pregnancy, Int. Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 1, 221-29.

Van de Carr, Kristen., Van de Carr, F. Rene., and Lehrer, Marc. (1988). Effects of a prenatal intervention program. In P. Fedor-Freybergh and Vogel, M.L.V., (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn (pp. 489-495). London: Parthenon Publishing.

Van Dongen, L. G. R. and Goudie, E. G. (1980). Fetal movements in the first trimester of pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 87, 191-193.

Giselle E. Whitwell, R.M.T.

Giselle Whitwell is a practicing prenatal music therapist in the Los Angeles area who has been a music educator for almost 20 years. For the last seven years, she has given lectures and workshops on prenatal music in the United States, Asia, and Europe. Please contact her at Winds, P.O. Box 280513, Northridge, CA 91328 or send email to