Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Issue: 
Publication Date: 
March, 2015
Page Count: 
18
Starting Page: 
177
Brief Summary: 

The primary goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical understanding of postpartum depression that captures multiple aspects of a woman’s life during pregnancy and postpartum.

Abstract: 

Abstract: The primary goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical understanding of postpartum depression that captures multiple aspects of a woman’s life during pregnancy and postpartum. Recent literature cites the couple’s relationship as playing an important role in the antenatal period. This paper offers a unique perspective. Family systems theory is employed to inform the conceptualization of postpartum depression and also to guide clinicians, women and family’s understanding of this disorder from a relational perspective. Specifically, a family system perspective connects relational risk and protection to postpartum depression and offers practical implications for clinicians and families.

References: 

References
 
Altarac, M., & Strobino, D. M. (2002). Abuse during pregnancy and stress because of
abuse during pregnancy and birth weight. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 57(4), 208-214. Retrieved from http://jamwa.amwa-doc.org/index.cfm?objectid=9486F3FB-D567-0B25-53F78FDF...
Banker, J. E., & LaCoursier, D. Y. (2014). Postpartum depression: Risks, protective factors
and the couple's relationship. Issues in Mental Health Nursing,35(7), 503-508.
Barnes, D. L. (2006). Postpartum depression: Its impact on couples and marital satisfaction.
Journal of Systemic Therapies, 25(3), 25-42. doi:10.1521/jsyt.2006.25.3.25
Beck, C. T. (2001). Predictors of postpartum depression: An update. Nursing Research, 50(5),
275-285. doi:10.1097/00006199-200109000-00004  
Belsky, J., & Pensky, E. (1988). Marital change across the transition to parenthood. Marriage
and Family Review, 12(3-4), 133-156. doi:10.1300/J002v12n03
Belsky, J., Spanier, G. B., & Rovine, M. (1983). Stability and change in marriage across the
transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 45(3), 567-577. doi:10.2307/351661
Bloch, M., Daly, R. C., & Rubinow, D. R. (2003). Endocrine factors in the etiology of
postpartum depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44(3), 234–246. doi:10.1016/S0010-440X(03)00034-8
Blum, L. D. (2007). Psychodynamics of postpartum depression. Psychoanalytic Psychology,
24(1), 45-62. doi:10.1037/0736-9735.24.1.45
Bohn, D., Tebben, J., & Campbell, J. (2004). Influences of income, education, age, and
ethnicity on physical abuse before and during pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 33, 561-571. doi:10.1177/0884217504269009
Britton, J. R. (2008). Maternal anxiety: Course and antecedents during the early
postpartum period. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 793-800.
Brown, M. A. (1986). Social support, stress, and health: A comparison of expectant mothers and
fathers. Nursing Research, 35(2), 72-76. doi:10.1097/00006199-198601000-00002
Brugha, T. S., Wheatley, S., Taub, N. A., Culverwell, A., Friedman, T.,  Kirwan, P.,  et al.
(2000).  Pragmatic randomized trial of antenatal intervention to prevent post-natal depression by reducing psychosocial risk factors. Psychological Medicine, 30(6), 1273-1281. doi:10.1017/S0033291799002937
Buist, A., Condon, J., Brooks, J., Speelman, C., Milgrom, J., & Hayes, B. (2006).
Acceptability of routine screening for perinatal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1-3), 233-237.
Burke, L. (2003). The impact of maternal depression on familial relationships. International
Review of Psychiatry, 15(3), 243- 256. doi:10.1080/0954026031000136866
Campbell, J., Kub, J. E., & Rose, L. (1996). Depression in battered women. Journal of the
American Medical Women’s Association, 51(3), 106-110. Retrieved from http://jamwa.amwa-doc.org/index.cfm?objectid=5CD22CD4-D567-0B25-56E8F9B0...
Chandra, P.S., Bhargavaraman, R.P., Raghunandan, V. N., & Shaligram, D. (2006).
Delusions related to infant and their association with mother-infant interactions in postpartum psychotic disorders. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(5), 285-288. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0147-7
Cowan, P.A., Cowan, C. P., Schultz, M. S., & Heming, G. (1994). Prebirth to preschool family factors in children’s adaptation to kindergarten. In R.D. Parke, & S.G. Kellam (Eds.), Exploring family relationships with other social contexts. Advances in family research (pp. 75-115). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
Cox, J. L., Murray, D., & Chapman, G. (1993). A controlled study of the onset, duration, &
prevalence of postpartum depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 27-31. doi:10.1192/bjp.163.1.27 
Coyne, J. C. & Benazon, N. R. (2001). Not agent blue: Effects of marital functioning on
depression and implications for treatment. In: S.R.H. BEACH (Ed), Marital and family processes in depression (pp. 25–43). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Curry, M. A., Durham, L., Bullock, L., Bloom, T., & Davis, J. (2006). Nurse case management
for pregnant women experiencing or at risk for abuse. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 35(2), 181-192. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00027.x
Cutrona, C. E. (1986). Objective determinants of perceived social support. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 50(2), 349-355. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.349
Cutrona, C. E., & Troutman, B. R. (1986). Social support, infant temperament, and parenting
self-efficacy: A mediational model of postpartum depression. Child Development, 57(6), 1507-1518. doi:10.2307/1130428
Dennis, C., & Chung-Lee, L. (2006). Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and
maternal treatment preferences: A qualitative systematic review. Birth, 33(4), 323-331. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00130.x
Dulude, D., Ba, C. E., Wright, J., Sabourn, S. (2002). High-risk pregnancies,
psychological distress, and dyadic adjustment. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 20(2), 101-123. doi:10.1080/02646830220134612
Ferketich, S. L., & Mercer, R. T. (1989). Men’s health status during pregnancy and early
fatherhood. Research in Nursing & Health, 12(3), 137-148. doi:10.1002/nur.4770120304
Forty, L., Jones, L., Macgregor, S., Caeser, S., Cooper, C., Hough, A., et al. (2006). Familiarity
of postpartum depression in unipolar disorder: Results of family study.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(9), 1549-1553. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.9.1549
Gaynes, B. N., Gavin, N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Lohr, K. N., Swinson, T., Gartlehner, G., et al..
Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Screening Accuracy, and Screening Outcomes. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 119. (Prepared by the RTI-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center, under Contract No. 290-02-0016.) AHRQ Publication No. 05-E006-2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. February 2005. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat1a.section.86127
Glazier, R. H., Elgar, F. J., Goel, V., & Holzapfel, S. (2004). Stress, social support and emotional distress in a community sample of pregnant women.  Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 25(3-4), 247-255. doi:10.1080/01674820400024406
Goldsmith, M. E., (2007). Postpartum depression screening by family nurse practitioners.
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners,19(6), 321-327. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2007.00232.x
Goodman, J.H., & Tyer-Viola, L. (2010). Detectionn, treatment, and referral of perinatal depression and anxiety by obstetrical providers. Journal of Womens Health (Larchmt), 19(3), 477-490 doi: 10.1089/jwh.2008.1352.
Gottman, J. M. (1999). The marriage clinic. New York: W.W. Norton.
Gottman, J. M., Osofsky, H. J. (1985). Transition to parenthood: Risk factors for parents and
infants. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 4(4), 303-315. doi:10.3109/01674828509016732
Green, K., Broome, H., & Mirabella, J. (2006). Postnatal depression among mothers in the
United Arab Emirates: Socio-cultural and physical factors. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 11(4), 425-431. doi:10.1080/13548500600678164
Hakulinen, T., Paunonen, M., White, M.A., & Wilson, M. E. (1997). Dynamics of
families during the third trimester of pregnancy in southwest Finland. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 34(4), 270-277. doi:10.1016/S0020-7489(97)00014-X
Halligan, S. L., Murray, L., Martins, C., & Cooper, P. J. (2006). Maternal depression and
psychiatric outcomes in adolescent offspring: A13-year long longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97(1-3), 145-154. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.06.010
Hanson, L., VandeVusse, L., Roberts, J., & Forristal, A. (2009). A critical appraisal of
guidelines for antenatal care: Components of care and priorities in prenatal education. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 54(6), 458-468.  doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.08.002
Haslam, D. M., Pakenham, K. I., & Smith, A. (2006). Social support and postpartum
depressive symptomatology: The mediating role of maternal self-efficacy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(3), 276-291. doi:10.1002/imhj.20092
Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L. L., & Suri, R. (1998). Hormonal changes in the postpartum period
and implications for postpartum depression. Psychosomatics, 39(2), 93–101. Retrieved from http://psy.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/39/2/93
Henshaw, C. (2003). Mood disturbances in the early puerperium: A review. Archives of
Women’s Mental Health, 6(2), 33-42. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0004-x
Husain, N., Bevc, I., Husain, M., Chaudhry, I. B., Atif, N., & Rahman, A. (2006). Prevalence
and social correlates of postnatal depression in a low income country. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(4), 197-202. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0129-9
Jacob, T., & Johnson, S. L. (1997). Parent-child interaction among depressed fathers and
mothers: Impact on child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(4), 391-409. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.11.4.391
Kendall-Tackett, K. A., & Kantor, G. K. (1993). Postpartum depression: A comprehensive
approach for nurses. Newbury, CA: Sage.
Kim, H.G., Mandell, M., Crandall, C., Kuskowski, M. A., Dieperink, B.,  &
Buchberger, R. L. (2006). Antenatal psychiatric illness and adequacy of prenatal care in an ethnically diverse inner-city obstetric population. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9, 103–107.
Klier, C. M. (2006). Mother- infant bonding disorders in patients with postnatal depression: The
Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire in clinical practice. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9(5), 289-291. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0150-z 
Klier, C. M., Muzik, M., Dervic, K., Mossaheb, N., Benesch, T., Ulm, B., et al. (2007).
The role of estrogen and progesterone in depression after birth. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 41(3-4), 273-279. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.09.002
Koeske, G. F., & Koeske, R. D. (1991). Underestimation of social support buffering.  The
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(4), 475-489. doi:10.1177/0021886391274007
Kreppner, K. (1988). Changes in parent-child relationships with the birth of the second child.
Marriage and Family Review, 12(3-4), 157- 181. doi:10.1300/J002v12n03
Abstract/2000/04000/Depression_and_Anxiety_in_Early_Pregnancy_and_Risk.3.aspx
Lau, Y., Wong, D.F. K., & Chan, K. S. (2010). The utility of sceening for prenatal depression in
the second trimester amoung Chinese: A three-wave prospective longitudinal study. Archives of Women's Mental Health,13(2), 153-164. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0134-x
Lutz, W. J., & Hock, E. (2002). Parental emotions following the birth of the first child: Gender
differences in depressive symptoms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72(3), 415-421. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.72.3.415
Martin, C. R., & Redshaw, M. (2009). Carry on screening. Journal of Reproductive and
Infant Psychology, 27(4), 327-329. doi:10.1080/02646830903381735
Mckee, M. D., Cunningham, M., Jankowski, K. R. B., & Zayas, L. (2001). Health-related
functional status in pregnancy: Relationship to depression and social support in a multi-ethnic population. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 97(6), 988-993. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2001/06000/
Health_Related_Functional_Status_in_Pregnancy_.22.aspx
Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S. L. & DeJoseph, J. (1993). Predictors of partner relationships during
pregnancy and infancy. Research in Nursing and Health, 16(1), 45–56. doi:10.1002/nur.4770160107
Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Minuchin, S., & Fishman, H. C. (1981). Family theory techniques. MA: Harvard University
Press.
Moehler, E., Brunner, R., Wiebel, A., Reck, C., & Resch, F. (2006). Maternal depressive
symptoms in the postnatal period are associated with long-term impairment to mother-child bonding. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9(5), 273-278.
doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0149-5 
Moran, T. E., & O'Hara, M. W. (2006). A partner-rating scale of postpartum depression: The
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale - Partner (EPDS-P). Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9(4), 173-180. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0136-x
Munk-Olsen, T., Laursen, T. M., Pedersen, C. B., Mors, O., & Mortensen P. B. (2006). New
parents and mental disorders: A population-based register study. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(21), 2582-2589. doi:10.1001/jama.296.21.2582
Nichols, M. P. & Schwartz, R. C. (2012). Family theory: Concepts and methods(10th Edition).
Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Nierop, A., Bratsikas, A., Zimmermann, R., & Ehlert, U. (2006). Are stress-induced cortisol
changes during pregnancy associated with postpartum depressive symptoms? Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(6), 931–937. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000244385.93141.3b
O'Hara, M.W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the
puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 569-573. Retrieved from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/43/6/569
Pajulo, M., Savonlahti, E., Sourander, A., Helenius, H., & Piha, J. (2001). Antenatal depression,
substance dependency and social support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 65(1), 9-17. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00265-2
Patel, V., Araya, R., de Lima, M., Ludermir, A., & Todd, C. (1999). Women, poverty and
common mental disorders in four restructuring societies. Social Science and Medicine, 49, 1461-1471. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00208-7
Paulden, M., Palmer, S., Hewitt, C., & Gilbody, S. (2010). Screening for postnatal
depression in primary care: Cost effectiveness analysis. British Medical Journal, Vol 340(7740), 5203-5211. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b5203
Paulson, J. F., & Bazemore, S. D. (2010).  Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its
association with maternal depression a meta-analysis. Journal of American Medical Association,303(19),1961-1969. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.605.
Paykel, E. S., Emms, E. M., Fletcher, J., & Rassaby, E. S. (1980). Life events and social
support in puerperal depression. British Journal of Psychology, 136, 339-346. doi:10.1192/bjp.136.4.339
Pearlstein, T. B., Zlotnick, C., Battle, C. L., Stuart, S., O’Hara, M. W., Price, A. B., et al. (2006).
Patient choice of treatment for postpartum depression: A pilot study. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9(6), 303-308. doi:10.1007/s00737-006-0145-9
Pedersen, C. A., Johnson J. L., Silva, S., Bunevicius, R., Meltzer-Brody, S., Hamer, R., et al.
(2007). Antenatal thyroid correlates of postpartum depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(3), 235–245. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.12.010
Roberts, S. L., Bushnell, J. A., Collings, S. C., & Purdie, G. L. (2006). Psychological health of
men with partners who have post-partum depression. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(8), 704-711. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01871.x
Robertson, E., Grace, S. T., Wallington, T., & Stewart, D. E. (2004). Antenatal risk factors for
postpartum depression: A synthesis of recent. General Hospital Psychiatry, 26(4), 289-295. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.02.006
Ruble, D. N., Brooks-Gunn, J., Fleming, A. S., Fitzmaurice, G., Stangor, C. & Deutsch, F.
(1990). Transition to motherhood and the self: Measurement, stability, and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(3), 450- 463. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.58.3.450
Seguin, L., Potvin, L., St Denis, M., & Loiselle, J. (1999). Depressive symptoms in the late
postpartum among low socioeconomic status women. Birth, 26(3),157–163. doi:10.1046/j.1523-536X.1999.00157.x
Shaw, E., Levitt, C., Wong, S., & Kaczorowski, J. (2006). Systematic review of the literature
on postpartum care: Effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health. Birth, 33(3), 210-220. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00106.x
Tammentie, T., Tarkka, M. T., Astedt-Kurki, P., Paavilainen, E., & Laippala, P. (2004).
Family dynamics and postnatal depression. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(2), 141-149. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2003.00684.x
Tessier, R., Piché, C., Tarabulsy, G., M., & Muckle, G. (1992). Mothers' experience of
stress following the birth of a first child: Identification of stressors and coping resources. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(17), 1319-1339. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00952.x
Thorp, S. R., Krause, E. D., Cukrowicz, K. C., & Lynch, T., R. (2004).  Postpartum
partner support, demand-withdraw communication, and maternal stress. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 362–369. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2004.00153.x
Tomlinson, B., White, M. A., & Wilson, M.E. (1990). Family dynamics during
pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15,683-688. doi:10.1111/1365-2648.ep8531586
Varma, D., Chandra, P. S., Thomas, T., & Carey, M. P. (2007). Intimate partner
violence and sexual coercion among pregnant women in India: Relationship with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102(1-3), 227-235. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.09.026
Webster, J., Linnane, J. W. J., Dibley, L. M., Hinson, J. K., Starrenburg, S. E., & Roberts,
J. A. (2000). Measuring social support in pregnancy: Can it be simple and
meaningful? Birth, 27(2), 97-101. doi:10.1046/j.1523-536x.2000.00097.x
Weissman, M. M., Pilowsky, D. J., Wickramaratne, P. J., Talati, A., Wisniewski, S. R., Fava,
M., et al. (2006). Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1389-1398. doi:10.1001/jama.295.12.1389
Whiffen, V. E., & Johnson, S. M. (1998). An attachment theory framework for the treatment of
childbearing depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(4), 478-493. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00168.x
Wisner, K. L., Chambers, C., & Sit, D. K. (2006). Postpartum depression: A major public
health problem. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 2616-2618. doi:http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/296/21/2616
Zonana, J., & Gorman, J. M. (2005). The neurobiology of postpartum depression. The
International Journal of Neuropsychiatric Medicine, 10, 792-799. Retrieved from http://www.cnsspectrums.com/aspx/articledetail.aspx?articleid=172
 

 
 

To speak with a representative about our products and services or for technology inquiries, please call 1-720-490-5612.