Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Issue: 
Publication Date: 
September, 2017
Page Count: 
38
Starting Page: 
16
Brief Summary: 

This article presents an intuitive approach to understanding infant death as illuminated by a novel investigation at the Center for Applied Intuition (CAI) utilized a systematic method of consensual intuitive inquiry.

Abstract: 

The sudden, unexpected, and unexplained death of a healthy infant in its first year of life (nominally 2 to12 months) is surely one of the most tragic human experiences a parent can undergo. The shock of loss is commonly accompanied by extreme sorrow, grief, feelings of guilt, and the emergence of unanswerable questions on how such an event could possibly have occurred. Forty years of medical research to find the cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have found neither the cause of the phenomenon nor a means of predicting or preventing it—only a long list of secondary, unlikely, and non-causal “risk factors” which offer no consolation to parents, no answers to their questions, and no substantial and trustworthy guidelines for action.

A novel investigation at the Center for Applied Intuition (CAI) utilized a systematic method of consensual intuitive inquiry to answer these questions. It sought to generate an explanation for the cause of SIDS and suggest how the disorder may best be handled by the parents and associated family members. A dozen “expert intuitives,” whose skills had been verified for acquiring entirely new and correct knowledge in other areas, explained that a very young infant is sufficiently conscious to be able to choose “at will” whether to continue its life or leave it—its own kind of suicide, just as adults may do. As the life force withdraws, the body succumbs to its weakest physical condition, which in the case of SIDS is not medically detectable.

Modern medical science possesses no means for investigating subjective information sources such as intuition, or even for testing whether proposed explanations are right or wrong. It has therefore disregarded non-physical approaches to understanding SIDS. However, corroboration of the intuitive findings is available from psychological sources. They show clearly that perinatal infants possess an active consciousness capable of sensation, memory, and some degree of choice, thereby adding credibility to the intuitive information.

SIDS can be seen as a natural occurrence, not a physical disorder or a medical disease and not a direct result of parental action or inaction. The usual grief, guilt, and confusion of the parents, while certainly understandable, arise from a misconception of the life process itself, which includes the possibility of premature death for infants just as it does for adults. These typical but mistaken responses by parents may be dispelled when they can achieve a fuller understanding and acceptance of the central place of loss and death in human life. The infant has the same choice as its parents to leave life at any time. The parents’ love for their child is no less genuine by this revised understanding, though it applies more to the infant’s consciousness, than to its body which can indeed be lost. Herein lies the meaning and the fundamental lesson parents may learn from losing a child to SIDS or any form of infant death.

 

References: 

AAP Policy (2003). Apnea, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and home monitoring. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Fetus and New born. Pediatrics 111(4), 914-917 (Apr). Revision (2005). Reaffirmation (2007). [http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/111/4/914.full]

AAP Policy (2005). The changing concept of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping Environment,

and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics 116(5), 1245-1255. [http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/116/5/1245.full.pdf+html]; see also update in Pediatrics, 123(1), 188+.

Alexander, E. (2012). Proof of heaven: A neurosurgeon’s journey into the afterlife. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Anon1. (2008). Report to the NACHHD Council, September 2008. Pregnancy & Perinatal Branch, NICHHD, 25-32. [https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/ pubs/Documents/ppb_council_2008_historical.pdf]

Anon2. (2013). Grief and loss: The five stages of grief. [http://www.funeralresources.com/grief-and-loss/five-stages-of-grief/]

Anon3. (no date). Nurses and social workers: Assisting families through a life-altering experience. Cuyahoga Falls, OH: BabyFirst Network. [http://www.baby1stnetwork.org/nurses-and-social-workers]

Aurobindo, S. (1993). The integral yoga: Sri Aurobindo’s teaching and method of practice. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press.

Bajanowski, T., Vege, A., Byard, R.W., Krous, H.F., Arnestad, M., Bachs, L., Rognum, T.O. (2007). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)–Standardised investigations and classification: Recommendations. Forensic Science International, 165(2-3), 129-43. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/16806765]

Ball, H.L., & Volpe, P.E. (2013). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) risk reduction and infant sleep location—moving the discussion forward. Social Science and Medicine 79, 84-91.

Barrow, J.D., & Tipler, F.J. (1988). The anthropologic cosmological principle. New York: Oxford University Press.

Batt, J. (2004). Stolen Innocence: The Sally Clark Story — A Mother’s Fight for Justice. New York: Ebury-Random House. [www.healthychildren.org/english/ ages-stages/baby/sleep/pages/Preventing-SIDS.aspx].

Becker, E. (1997). The Denial of Death. New York: FreePress/Simon & Schuster.

Beckwith, J. B. (1973). The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 3(8), 1-36.

Berry, P. J. (1992). Pathological findings in SIDS. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45(11 Suppl), 11-16. (Nov).

Blair, P.S., Sidebotham, P., Evasson-Coombe, C., Edmonds, M., Heckstall- Smith,  E.M., & Fleming, P. (2009). Hazardous co-sleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: Case-control study of SIDS in southwest England. British Medical Journal, 339, b3666. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/19826174]

Blavatsky, H.P. (1887). The key to theosophy: Being a clear exposition in the form of questions and answers. Los Angeles: The Theosophical Company.

Boyle, F.M., Vance, J.C., Naiman, J.M., & Thearle, M.J. (1996). The mental health impact of stillbirth, neonatal death or SIDS: Prevalence and patterns of distress among mothers. Social Science Medicine, 43(8), 1273-1282.

Burnett, L.B. (2013). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome—Epidemiology. Medscape (NICHD). (Nov). [http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/804412-overview#a0156]

Campbell, C.S., & Black. M.A. (2013). Dignity, death, and dilemmas: A study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death. Journal Pain Symptom Manage 47(1), 137-53 (Jul).

Campbell, J., & Osbon, D.K. (1995). Reflections on the art of living: A Joseph  Campbell companion. New York: Harper Perennial.

CDC (2015). Sudden unexpected infant death and sudden infant death syndrome. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. [http://www.cdc.gov/SIDS/ aboutSIDSandSIDS.htm]

Chamberlain, D. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (2013). Windows to the womb: Revealing the whole baby from conception to birth. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Colson, E.R., Rybin, D., Smith, L.A., Colton, T., Lister, G., & Corwin, M.J. (2009). Trends and factors associated with infant sleeping position: The national infant sleep position study, 1993-2007. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 163, 1122-1128.

Dagur, G., Warren, K., Imhof, R., Imhof, N., Wasnick, R., & Khan, S.A. (2015). Current concepts of sudden infant death syndrome: A review of literature. Translational Biomedicine, 6(4), 35.

DeCasper, A., & Fifer, W. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mother’s voices. Science 208, 1174-1176.

Dossey, L. (1999). Reinventing medicine: Beyond mind-body to a new era of healing. New York: HarperCollins.

Dougherty, S.B. (1990, Feb/Mar). Mysteries of prenatal consciousness. Sunrise Magazine. Theosophical University Press. [http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/issues/sx-sbd2.htm]

Duncan, J.R., Paterson, D.S., Hoffman, J.M., Mokler, D.J., Borenstein, N.S., Belliveneau, R.A., … & Kinney, H.C. (2010). Brainstem serotonergic deficiency in sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA 303(5), 430-437. [http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=185314]

Friedlander, S., & Shaw, E. (1975). Psychogenic factors in sudden infant death. Clinical Social Work 3(4), 237-278. [www.springer.com/article/ 10.1007%2FBF02198252]

Gibran, K. (1951). The Prophet. New York: Knopf.

Gould J.B., Qin, C., Marks, A.R., & Chavez, G. (2003). Neonatal mortality in weekend vs weekday births. JAMA, 289(22), 2958-62.

Greyson, B. (1993). Varieties of near-death experience. Psychiatry, 56(4), 390-399.

Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany, NY: State University of  New York.

Grof, S. (2006). The ultimate journey: Consciousness and the mystery of death. Ben Lomond, CA: MAPS, The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies.

Grof, S. (2010). LSD: Doorway to the Numinous: Groundbreaking psychedelic research into realms of the human unconscious. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions/Bear & Company.

Grof, S. & Grof, C. (2010). Holotropic breathwork: A new approach to self-exploration and therapy. Albany NY: Suny Press.

Grof, P., & Kautz, W.H. (2010). Bipolar disorder: Verification of insights obtained by intuitive consensus. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 42, 171-191.

Hallett, E. (2002). Stories of the unborn soul: The mystery and delight of pre-birth communication. New York: iUniverse.

Harman, W., & Clark, J. (1994). New metaphysical foundations of modern science. Oakland, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Hoffman, H.J., Damus, K., Hillman. L., & Krongrad, E. (1988). Risk factors for SIDS: Results of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development SIDS Cooperative epidemiological study. Annuls of the New York Academy of Sciences, 533, 13-30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/3048169.

Jenkinson, S. (2013). The meaning of death. http://www.lifemeanswhat.com. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zjm8gWY3etg]

Jind, L. (2003). Parents’ adjustment to late abortion, stillbirth or infant death: The role of causal attributions.

 Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 44(4), 383-94.

Jones A.M., & Weston, J.T. (1976). The examination of the sudden infant death syndrome: Infant, investigative and autopsy protocols. Journal of Forensic Science, 21(4), 833-841.

Jung, C.G. (1976). Psychological types. In: Collected works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 6. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kadampa, L. (2012). Love, attachment and desire according to Buddhism. Kadampa Life. Tharpa Publications. https://kadampalife.org/?s=Love%2C+ attachment%2C+and+desire+according+to+Buddhism

Kattwinkel, J., Hauck, F.R., Moon, R.Y., Malloy, M., & Williger, M. (2006). Bed-sharing with unimpaired parents is not a risk for SIDS: In reply. Pediatrics, 117(3), 994.

Kautz, W.H. (2005). Opening the inner eye: Explorations on the practical application of intuition in daily life and work. New York: iUniverse.

Kautz, W.H. (2012). Earthquake triggering: Verification of intuitive insights obtained by intuitive consensus. Journal of Scientific Exploration 26, 505-550.

Kautz, W.H. (2015a). Verification and Application of Consensual Intuitive Insights on HIV and AIDS. Manuscript under preparation.

Kautz, W.H. (2015b). Verification of the intuitive speech of an unlearned language: Xenoglossy. Manuscript under preparation.

Kautz, W.H. (2016a). [http://www.appliedintuition.net]

Kautz, W.H. (2016b). The potential of intuition in science: Another way of knowing. Edge Science Magazine/Society for Scientific Exploration, 27, 11-17.

Keens, T. (1998). SIDS recurrence in SIDS siblings. [http://www.SIDS-network.org/sibling/siblings.htm]

Kelly, E.F., Crabtree, A., & Marshall, P. (2015). Beyond physicalism: Toward reconciliation of science and spirituality. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kelly, E.F., & E.W. Kelly (2009). Irreducible mind: Toward a psychology for the 21st century. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kinney, H.C. (2009). The brainstem and serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome. Annual Review Pathology, 4, 517-550.

Kinney, H.C. & Thach, B.T. (2009). The sudden infant death syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 361, 795-805.

Kitzman, H., Olds, D.L., Henderson, C.R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Tatelbaum, R.,  Barnard, K. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing: A Randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 278(8), 644-652.

Klass, D., Silverman, P.R., Nickman, S., (Eds.) (1996/2016). Continuing bonds: New understandings of grief (death education, aging, and health care). London: Taylor & Francis.

Kraus, J.F., & Borbani, N.O. (1972). Post-neonatal sudden unexplained death in California: A cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 95(6), 497-510.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Latour, B. (1987). Science in action. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press.

Leach C.E., Blair, P.S., Fleming, P.J., Smith, I.J., Platt, M.W., Berry, P.J., & Golding, J. (1999). Epidemiology of SIDS and explained sudden infant deaths. Pediatrics, 104(4), e43. [http://www.pediatricsdigest.mobi/content/104/4/e43.full]

Leduc, D., Cote, A., & Woods, S. (2004). Recommendations for safe sleeping environments for infants and children. Paediatr. & Child Health 9(9), 659-683. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2724135/]

Lehrer, J. (2012). Trials and errors: why science is failing us. Wired (Feb). [http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2012/02/features/trials-and-errors]

Levine, S. (1982). Who dies: An investigation of conscious living and dying. New York: Anchor/Doubleday.

Malloy, M.H. (2013). Prematurity and sudden infant death syndrome: United States 2005-2007. Journal of Perinatology 33(6), 470-5. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288251]

Malloy, M.H., & Eschbach, K. (2007). Association of poverty with sudden infant death syndrome in metropolitan counties of the United States in the years 1990 and 2000. Southern Medical Journal, 100(11), 1107-1113. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984743]

Malloy, M.H., & Freeman, D.H. (2003). Risk of neonatal death on weekends vs weekdays. JAMA 290(16), 2124-2125.

Malloy, M.H., & Freeman, D.H. (2005). SIDS among twins: a confounded relationship. Journal of Perinatology 25(4), 293. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/15867031]

Malloy M.H., & MacDorman, M. (2005). Changes in the classification of sudden unexpected infant deaths: United States, 1992-2001. Pediatrics 115(5):1247-1253 (May). [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867031]

Mislove, J. (1975). The roots of consciousness: Psychic liberation through history, science, and experience. New York: Random House.

Mitchell, E. A., Thompson, J.M., Stewart, A.W., Webster, M.L., Taylor, B.J., Hassall, I.B., … Becroft, D.M. (1992). Postnatal depression and SIDS: A prospective study. Journal of Paediatric & Child Health, 28(suppl. 1), S13-16.

Moon, R.Y. (2011). Task force on sudden infant death syndrome. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 128(5), 1030-1039.

Moon, R.Y., & Fu, L. (2016). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Evidence base for 2016 updated recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Technical Report, American Academy of Pediatrics.

Moon, C., Lagercrantz, H., & Kuhl, P.K. (2013). Language experienced in utero affects vowel perception after birth: A two-country study. Acta Paediatrica, 102(1), 156–160. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apa.12098/abstract].

Moorjani, A. (2012). Dying to be me: My journey from cancer, to near death, to true healing. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House.

Myers, I.B. (1995). Gifts differing: Understanding personality type. Mountain View, CA: Davies Black.

Naeye, R.L. (1976). Brainstem and adrenal abnormalities in the sudden infant death syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 66, 526-530.

NICHD (2015). Safe to Sleep turns 20. National Institutes of Health, NICHD. [www.nichd.nih.gov/sts/Pages/default.aspx]

NICHHD (2006). SIDS infants show abnormalities in brain area controlling breathing, heart Rate: Serotonin-using brain cells implicated in abnormalities. National Institutes of Health, NICHHD. [https://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/releases/pages/SIDS_serotonin.aspx]

O’Leary, C.M. (2013). Maternal alcohol use and sudden infant death syndrome and infant mortality excluding SIDS. Pediatrics Neoreviews, 131(3), e770-e778. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439895]

O’Reilly, K.B. (2013). Doctor-assisted suicide laws pose hospice care dilemmas. American Medical News (AMA) (Aug). [http://www.amednews.com/ article/20130812/profession/130819969/6/%5D]

Odent, M. (1984, 1994). Birth reborn: What birth can and should be. New York: Pantheon, and London: Souvenir Press.

Orlowsky, J.P., Nodar, R.H., & Lonsdale, D. (1979). Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials in infants with threatened sudden infant death syndrome. Cleveland Clinic Quarterly 46(3), 77-81.

Overpeck M.D., Brenner, R.A., Cosgrove, C., Trumble, A.C., Kochanek, K., & MacDorman, M. (2002). National under-ascertainment of sudden unexpected infant deaths associated with deaths of unknown cause. Pediatrics, 109(2), 274-283. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11826207]

Palmer, H. (1998). Inner knowing: Consciousness, creativity, insight, intuition. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Partanen, E.O., Kujala, T., Naatanen, R., Liitola, A., Sambeth, A., & Houtilainen, M. (2013). Learning-induced neural plasticity of speech processing before birth. NAS Proceedings (early edition) (Aug). [www.pnas.org/content/ early/2013/08/14/1302159110.abstract]

Paterson D.S., Trachtenberg, F.L., Thompson, E.G. Belliveau, R.A., Beggs, A.H., Darnall, R., … Kinney, H.C. (2006). Multiple serotonergic brainstem abnormalities in sudden infant death syndrome. JAMA, 296(17), 2124-2132.

Platt, M.J. & Pharoah, P.O. (2003). The epidemiology of sudden infant death syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(1), 27–29.

Popper, K. (1959). The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Foutledge.

Porter, K. (2013). Revisiting SIDS & back sleeping: More questions than answers. Natural to the Core. [https://naturaltothecore.wordpress.com/ 2013/02/14/revisiting-SIDS-and-back-sleeping-part-1]

Price, S.K. (2007). Social work, siblings, and SIDS: Conceptual and case-based guidance for family system intervention. Journal of Social Work in End Life & Palliative Care, 3(3), 81-10.

Radin, D.I. (1997). The conscious universe: The scientific truth of psychic phenomenon. San Francisco: Harper.

Riley, Clara M. (1988). Teaching Mother/Fetus Communication: A Workshop on How to Teach Mothers to Communicate with their Unborn Children.­­ Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 3(2), 77-86.

Ring, K. (1980). Life at death: A scientific investigation of the near-death experience. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan.

Ring, K. (1984). Heading toward omega: In search of the meaning of near-death experience. New York: William Morrow.

Rodegast, P., & Stanton, J. (1985). Emmanuel’s book. New York: Bantam.

Rosof, B. D. (1995). The worst loss. New York: Holt Paperbacks (McMillan).

Russell-Jones, D.L. (1985). Sudden infant death in history and literature. Archives of Diseases of Childhood, 60(3), 278–281. [http://adc.bmj.com/ content/60/3/278.full.pdf]

Scragg, R., Mitchell, E.A., Taylor, B.J., Stewart, A.W., Ford, R.P., Thompson, J.M., … , & Becroft, D.M. (1993).  Bedsharing, smoking and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ, 307(6915), 1312-1317.

Shapiro-Mendoza, C.K., Tomashek, K.M., Anderson, R.N., & Wingo, J. (2006). Recent national trends in sudden, unexpected infant deaths: More evidence supporting a change in classification or reporting. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(8), 762-769. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16582034]

Silvestri, J.M. (2009). Indications for home apnea monitoring (or not). Clinical Perinatalogy, 36(1), 87-99. [www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0095510808000936].

Sperry, R. (1987). Turnabout on consciousness: A mentalist view. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved from: http://people.uncw.edu/ puente/sperry/sperrypapers/80s-90s/273-1992.pdf

Stevenson, I. (1966/1974). Twenty cases suggestive of reincarnation. Charlottesville VA: University of Virginia Press.

Stevenson, I. (1987). Children who remember past lives: A question of reincarnation. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Strehle. E.M., Gray, W.K., Gopisetti, S., Richardson, J., McGuire, J., & Malikne, S. (2012). Can home monitoring reduce mortality in infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A systematic review. Acta Paediatrica, 101(1), 8-13.

Targ, R., & Puthoff, H. (1977/2005). Mind reach: Scientists look at psychic abilities. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing.

Task Force (2000). Changing concepts of sudden infant death syndrome: Implications for infant sleeping environment and sleep position (RE9946). Task Force on Infant Sleep Position. Pediatrics, 105(3), 650-56. [pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/105/3/650.full]

Task Force (2005). The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: Diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics, 116(5),1245-55. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216901].

Task Force (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics 128(5), e1341-1367. [www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007003].

Thomas, L. (1974/1978). The lives of a cell: Notes of a biology watcher. New York: Viking, 1974, Penguin, 1978.

Timmermans, S. (2007). Postmortem: How medical examiners explain suspicious deaths. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Timmermans, S., & Angell, A. (2001). Evidence-based medicine, clinical uncertainty and learning to doctor. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(4), 342-359.

Tomatis, A.A. (1991). The conscious ear: My life of transformation through listening. Paris: Station Hill Press.

Trachtenberg, F.L., Haas, E. A., Kinney, H.C., Staney, C., & Krous, H. (2012). Risk factor changes for sudden infant death syndrome after initiation of back-to-sleep campaign.  Pediatrics. 129(4), 630–638.

Tucker, J. (2005). Life before life: A scientific investigation of children’s memories of previous lives. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Valdes-DaPena, M.A. (1980). Sudden infant death syndrome: A review of the medical literature, 1974-1979, Pediatrics, 66(4), 597-614.

Vaughan, F. (1979).  Awakening intuition. New York: Anchor/Doubleday.

Vaughan, F. (1988). From address “Intuition and Perception,” presented at the conference Opening the Intuitive Gate: The Role of Intuition in Psychotherapy. San Francisco: Center for Applied Intuition.

Verny, T., & Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell Publishing.

Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (1991). Nurturing the unborn child. New York: Delacorte Press.

Walsh, R., & Vaughan, F. (1993). Paths beyond ego: The transpersonal vision. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher.

Weigel, J.G. (2010). Loving without attachment. High-Road Artist, 14 (Dec.). [http://high-road-artist.com/1124/an-artful-life/loving-without-attachment/]

Whitwell, G.E. (1999). The importance of prenatal sound and music. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 13(3-4):255-262.