Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth. Benefits of the class for the parents included developing awareness of the consciousness of unborn babies, learning methods for bonding prenatally, and finding ways to communicate with a newborn. Suggestions for the future included offering tips for healing after a traumatic birth, normalizing the postpartum period, and easing the pressure prospective and new parents feel. This underscores the necessity of PPN educators using sensitivity and creativity in imparting this new perspective.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Barrack, A. C. (2004). [Influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding]. Unpublished raw data.
Barrack, A. C. (2005). A journey of love: The influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Santa
Barbara Graduate Institute, CA.
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.
Chamberlain, D. (2003). Communicating with the mind of a prenate: Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 95-108.
Ciechanowski, P. S., Walker, E. A., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2002). Attachment theory: A model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 660-667.
Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.
Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.
Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached. New York: Oxford University Press.
Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Everything your baby would ask...if only he or she could talk. New York: Golden Books.
Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: Tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1984). Mother-infant bonding: Weighing the evidence. Developmental Review, 4, 274-282.
Kitzinger, S. (2003). The complete book of pregnancy and childbirth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.
Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Luminare-Rosen, C. (2003). Birth, brain, and bonding: The psychology and science of attachment. Paper presented at the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, CA.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Cibelli, D. D. (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 681-692.
Magid, K., & McKelvey, C. (1987). High risk: Children without a conscience. New York: Bantam.
Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.
McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.
McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nathanielsz, P. (1999). Life in the womb: The origin of health and disease. New York: Promethean Press.
Nolan, M. (1997). Antenatal education - where next? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1198-1204.
Panksepp, J. (2001). The long-term psychobiological consequences of infant emotions: Prescriptions for the twenty-first century. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 132-173.
Schore, A. N. (2000). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47.
Schore, A. N. (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.
Sears, W, & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book. Boston: Little, Brown.
Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind. New York: Guilford Press.
Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.
Sroufe, L. A., Cooper, R. G., DeHart, G. B., & Marshall, M. (Eds.). (1996). Child development: Its nature and its course (3rd éd.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
Trevathan, W. R. (1987). Human birth: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Tsujino, J., Higa, M. O., Eng, D., & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.
van Manen, M. (2002). Orientations in phenomenology. Retrieved July 1, 2004, from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com
Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Watson, M., & Ecken, L. (2003). Learning to trust. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Willford, R. A. (1998). The impact of prenatal education on parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International. 36(5). (UMI No. 1390160).