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Fetal motility was observed by ultrasound scan in 15 pregnant women awaiting amniocentesis, in order to assess the effects of maternal stress on fetal motor behavior. Amniocentesis was considered a stress situation giving rise to maternal anxiety not artificially induced. The control group consisted of 15 pregnant women undergoing routine ultrasound examination. Fetal motor activity was assessed in terms of quantity and quality. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S.T.A.I.). Fetuses showed a significantly higher motor activity (p
Anxiety score was also found to be higher than in controls (p
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Nicolino Rossi,* Paola Avveduti,* Nicola Rizzo,** Raffaele Lorusso**
The authors' affiliations are as follows: *Nicolino Rossi, Paola Aweduti, Department of Psychology, **Nicola Rizzo, Raffaele Lorusso, Prenatal Physiopathology Unit, II Institute of Obstetrics, University of Bologna, Viale Berti, Pichat n5, 40127 Bologna, Italy. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Rossi.