Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Publication Date: 
December, 1989
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 

This program is geared towards raising a level of concern for the expectant parent about childbirth preparation, and the infant itself as an individual. The Music Therapy-Assisted Childbirth program attempts to facilitate 1) a reduction of stress for the working mother-to-be, in preparation for the birthing process, and 2) a more positive interaction between mother and child in the postnatal period.

It emphasizes adequate emotional preparation, patient and infant relaxation/ stimulation through frequency and length of music home practice. The program integrates compatible-researched methods and strategies, and new methodology regarding breathing techniques and music.


Burt, R., & Korn, G. Audioanalgesia in obstetrics: White sound analgesia during labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1964. 88, 361-366.

Carter-Jessop, L. Promoting maternal attachment through prenatal intervention. American Journal of Maternal and Child Rearing, 6 (2), 107-112. 1981.

Catano, J.W., & Catano, V.M. "The infantile amnesia paradigm: possible effects of stress associated with childbirth." Pre- and perinatal Psychology: an Introduction. Verny, T. Human Sciences Press. 1987.

Clark, M.E., McCorkle, R.R., & Williams, S. Music therapy-assisted labor and delivery. Journal of Music Therapy, 1981, 88-100.

Clifford, O. The Fetus as a person. Birth Psychology Bulletin, 1985 (Fall), Vol. 6(2), 21-26.

Codding, P. An exploration of the uses of music in the birthing process. Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University. 1982.

Crawford, M.I. Physiological and behavioural cues to disturbances in childbirth (Doctoral dissertation, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1969,29,2504B-2505B (University Microfilms No. 69-661)

Diserens, Charles M. The influence of music on behavior. Princeton University Press. Reprint. 1926.

Fere, Charles. Le travail et le plaisir, Chap XII, pp. 127-159. 1904.

Ferreira, A.J. (1960). The pregnant woman's emotional attitude and its affection on the newborn. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 30, 553-561.

Goodlin, R.C. Care of the Foetus. Masson Publishing Co., New York, 1977.

Hanser, S., Larson, S.C., & O'Connell, A.S. The effect of Music on relaxation of expectant mothers during labor. Journal of Music Therapy. 1983. 50-58.

Livingston, J.C. Music for the childbearing family. Journal of Obstetrical and Gynecological Nursing. Nov/Dec 1979.

Lukesch, M., Maternal Attitudes. "Psychologie Faktoren den Schwangerschaft,," dissertation, University of Salzburg, 1975.

Noor, K.L., Block, C.R., Charles, A., Meyering, S., & Meyers, E. Explaining pain and enjoyment in childbirth. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1977, 18, 260-275.

Peterson, G.H., Mehl L.E.: Some determinants of paternal attachment. Presented at the 6th World Congress of Psychiatry. Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug. 28-Sept. 3, 1977.

Peterson, G.H., Mehl, L.E.: Some determinants of maternal attachment. American Journal of Psychiatry. 135 (10), 1168-1173. 1978.

Salk, L. Mother's heartbeat as an imprinting stimulus. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science, 24, 753. 1962.

Stott, D.H., New Society, 19, 1977.

Tronick, E.Z., Field, T., "The transmission of maternal disturbance to the infant." Maternal depression and infant disturbance. New Directions for Child Development. Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. 1987.

Verny, T. & Kelly, J. The secret life of the unborn child. Dell Publishing Co. New York, 1981.

Carlos Gonzalez, M.T., is a music therapist employed by the Vancouver Jewish Community Centre. He conducts the Music Therapy-Assisted Childbirth program in conjunction with the Salvation Army Grace Hospital, in Vancouver, B.C.


Various adjustments and new techniques were put into practice after the seventh month. These included:

a) Development of the Micromusic