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A position on the necessity of evaluating both obstretrics and midwifery is offered to utilize what strengths each discipline brings birthing mothers. But beyond this, the effects of birth on subsequent events, for example breastfeeding in the short term, and the potential for sweeping effects in the long term for the culture are included. To summarize, the accumulation of research in a number of areas points to the conclusion that interfering with pre- or perinatal development can have future effects currently not envisioned. Studies that demonstrate this conclusion are offered, from animal studies (ewes given epidural anaesthesia procedure at birth having the effect that they do not take care of their babies) to humans (c-sections). Comparisons are drawn to similar procedures that may be at the root of some existential changes occuring in our own civilization.
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