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Psychology dates to the early part of the twentieth century in Yugoslavia, but developments in the science have been slow for a number of reasons. Lag in technological development and lack of financial support have been characteristic. Furthermore, sociocultural and economic differences between the regions have made an even development of pre- and perinatal psychological awareness impossible. There is now conflict between cultural values relative to pregnancy, the life of the fetus and abortion. Medical advances and social change have produced problems faster than they can be solved. The future role of pre- and perinatal psychology in solving these problems will be significant.