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1. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. (1991). Prevention of neural tube defect. Lancet, 338, 131-37.

2. Czeizel, A.E. (1992). Dudas I. Prevention of the first occurrence of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 1832-35.

3. Huisman, M., Koopman-Esseboom, C., et al. (1995). Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Early Human Development, 43, 165-76.

4. Koopman-Esseboom, C., Weisglas-Kuperus, N., et al. (1996). Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl/Dioxin exposure and feeding type on infants mental health and psychomotor development. Pediatrics, 97, 700-06.

5. Patandin, S., Lanting, C.I., et al. (1999). Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl/dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months. Journal of Pediatrics, 734(1), 7-9.

6. Jacobson, J.L., & Jacobson, S.W. (1996). Intellectual impairment in children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls in utero. New England Journal of Medicine, 335(11): 783-9.

7. Alaluusua, S., Lukinmaa, P.L., et al. (1996). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother's milk may cause developmental defects in the child's teeth. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 1, 193-97.

8. Alaluusua, S., Lukinmaa, P.L., et al. (1993). Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzopara-dioxin leads to defective dentin formation and pulpal perforation in rat incisor tooth. Toxicology, 8, 1-13.

9. Alaluusua, S., Lukinmaa, P.L., et al. (1999). Developing teeth as biomarker of dioxin exposure. Lancet (16 Jan), 353, 206 (research letter).

10. Jackson, M.B. (1988). John Radcliffe Hospital cryptorchidism research group. The epidemiology of cryptorchidism. Horm Res, 30, 153-56.

11. Garcia-Rodriguez, J., Garcia-Martin, M., et al. (1996). Exposure to pesticides and cryptorchidism: geographical evidence of a possible association. Environ Health Perspect, 104, 394-99.

12. Paulozzi, L.J., Erickson, D., & Jackson, R.J. (1997). Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems. Pediatrics, 100: 831.

13. Forman, D., & Moller, H. (1994). Testicular cancer. Cancer Surv, 19-20, 323-41.

14. Sharpe, R.M., & Skakkebaek, N.E. (1993). Are estrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet, 341, 1392-95.

15. Auger, J., Kunstmann, J.M., Czyglik, F., & Jouannet, P. (1995). Decline in semen quality among fertile men in Paris during the past 20 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 281-5.

16. Mizuno, R. (2000). The male/female ratio of fetal deaths and births in Japan. Lancet, 356, 738-39.

17. Davis, D.L., Gottlieb, M.B., & Stampnitzky, J.R. (1998). Reduced ratio of male to female births in several industrial countries. A sentinel health indicator? JAMA, 279, 1018-1023.

18. Moller, H. (1996). Change in male - female ratio among newborn infants in Denmark. Lancet, 348, 828-29.

19. van der Pal-de Bruin, K.M. (1997). Change in male-female ratio among newborn babies in Netherlands, Lancet, 349, 62.

20. Allan, B.B., Brant, R., Seidel, J.E., & Jarrel, J.F. (1997). Declining sex ratios in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 156, 37-41.

21. Marcus, M., Kiely, J., McGeehin, M., & Sinks, T. (1998). Changing sex ratio in the United States, 1969-1995. Fertil Steril, 70(2): 270-3.

22. Feitosa, M.F., & Krieger, H. (1992). Demography of the human sex ratio in some Latin American countries, 1967-1986. Hum BM, 64, 523-530.

23. Vartiainen, T., Kartovaara, L., & Tuomisto, J. (1999). Environmental chemicals and changes in sex ratio: analysis over 250 years in Finland. Environ Health Perspect, 107, 813-5.

24. Astolfi, P., & Zonta, L.A. (1999). Human Reproduction, 74(12): 3116-3119.

25. Mocarelli, P., Brambilla, P., et al. (1996). Change in sex ratio with exposure to dioxin. Lancet, 348, 409.

26. Koletzko, B. (1992). Transfatty acids impair biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturates and growth in man. Acta Paediatr, 81, 302-6.

27. Infante-Rivard, C., & Sinnett, D. (1999). Preconceptional paternal exposure to pesticides and increased risk of childhood leukemia. Lancet, 354, 1819 (letter).

28. Dimich-Ward, H., & Hertzman, C., et al. (1998). Reproductive effects of paternal exposure to chlorophenate wood preservatives in the sawmill industry. Scared J Work Environ Health, 24(5), 416.

29. Nelson, B.K., Moorman, W.L., & Shrader, S.M. (1996). Review of experimental male mediated behavioral and neurochemical disorders. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 18(6), 611-16.

30. Lambert, G., & Brodeur, J. (1976). Influence of starvation and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction of the mobilization of DDT residues in rats. Tax App Pharm, 36, 111-20.

31. Clark, D., Prouty, R. (1997). Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats. J Toxicol Environ Health, 2, 917-28.

32. deFreitas, A., & Norstrom, R. (1974). Turnover and metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to their chemical structure and the movement of lipids in pigeons. Can J Physiology, 52, 1080-94.

33. Wirth, A., Schlierf, G., & Schelter, G. (1979). Physical activity and lipid metabolism. Klin Wochenschr, 57, 1105-1201.

Editor's note: These essays are reprinted with permission of Michel Odent, Director, Primal Health Research Center in London and the newsletter Primal Health Research, published in North and South America by Birth Works, Inc., Medford, NJ. APPPAH is pleased to support increased circulation by reprinting these four essays as an annual feature in the pages of this Journal. For information about subscribing to the current volume of the newsletter please email info@birthworks.org or telephone: (609) 953-9380. Free access to the Primal Health Research Data Bank is provided at: www.birthworks. org/primalhealth. Email for Dr. Odent: modent@aol.com