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Already a British medical missionary and parasitologist, Lake trained in psychiatry. He used LSD from 1954 to 1969, but turned to deep breathing and other approaches. Following pioneers in psychotherapy he facilitated deep regression. By recognizing the original context of a primal memory patients re-integrated the separate memory systems. Lake scientifically defended the feasibility that cell memory could antedate brain memory. Some of his insights into maternal-fetal effects have been corroborated in sociology, criminology, obstetrics and biochemistry. Valuing child-bearers helps their offspring to know they are loved, and so be less prone to depression, compulsions, violence. Coordinating psychotherapy and theology, Lake sought individual and social change.


1. Lake F, ed Christian C (1991) In the Spirit of Truth, Darton LT.

2. Lake F (1981) Tight Corners in Pastoral Counselling, Darton LT.

3. Lake F (1966) Clinical Theology, Darton LT.

4. Grof S (1990) The Holotropic Mind, Harper Collins, NY.

5. Janov A (1973) The New Primal Scream, Abacus.

6. Stettbacher K (1991) Making Sense of Suffering, Dutton.

7. Miller A (1991) Breaking Down the Wall of Silence, Virago.

8. Pelletier KR (1978) Toward a Science of Consciousness, Dell, NY.

9. Johnston W (1974) Silent Music, Collins.

10. Moss R (1999) Primal book, 3 Earl Richard's Rd North, Exeter, EX2 6AQ UK. Email 106116.3404@compuserve.com.

11. Leboyer F (1975) Birth Without Violence, Wildwood.

12. Odent M (1984) Birth Reborn, Random.

13. Odent M (1986) Primal Health, Century.

14. Dunn PM (1995) Major ethical problems confronting perinatal care around the world, International Journal of ynecology & Obstetrics 51, 210.

15. Pert C (1998) Molecules of Emotions, Simon and Schuster.

16. Janov A (1991) The New Primal Scream, Abacus.

17. Mott FJ (1965) The Universal Design of Creation, Mark Beech.

18. Swartley W (1977) Self and Society, Interview, June. (Ridgway 1987).

19. Ridgway R (1987) The Unborn Child, Wildwood. (Amazon) 2000.

20. Freud S (1991) Studies in Hysteria, Penguin.

21. Jones E (1955) The Life & Works of Sigmund Freud, (Letter, Freud to Ferenczi, 13 Dec 1931).

22. Maret SM (1992) Frank Lake's Maternal-Fetal Distress Syndrome, Drew University, NJ.

23. Rank O (1928) The Trauma of Birth, Kegan Paul, TTC.

24. Sadger I (1941) Psychoanalytic Review, July.

25. Seaborn-Jones G (1977) Interview with Jean Posey, Self and Society, June.

26. Greenacre P (1945) The Biological Economy of Birth in Trauma, Growth and Personality, Hogarth, London.

27. Winnicott DW (1949) Birth Memories, Birth Trauma, and Anxiety, in DW Winnicott: Collected Papers, Tavistock 1958.

28. Hau TF, Schindler S (1982) Pranatale und Psychosomatik, (Ridgway 1987).

29. Kafkalides A (1987) The Power of the Womb and the Subjective Truth, Triklino House, Corfu.

30. Kafkalides A (1980) The Knowledge of the Womb, Triklino House, Corfu.

31. Grof S (1985) Beyond the Brain, State University of New York.

32. Dryden R (1978) Before Birth, Heinemann.

33. Pribram KH (1971) Languages of the Brain, Prentice-Hall.

34. Older J (1982), Touching is Healing. Stein and Day, NY.

35. Grof S (1993) The Cosmic Game, State University of New York.

36. Zohar D (1991) The Quantum Self, Flamingo.

37. MacMurdo S (1998) Gonia to Implantation, 192 Springwell Rdd, Groomsport, Co Down, BT19 2LY UK fax oil 1247 455 432.

38. House SH (2000) Generating Healthy People, Nutrition and Health, AB Academic UK.

39. Moir A, Jessel D (1996) A Mind to Crime, Michael Joseph.

40. Kotulak, RM (1996) Inside the Brain, Andrew and McMeel, Kansas City.

41. Ingalls P (1997) Neurosciences: environment & violence, update of Birth Traumas, Violence Begets Violence, IJPPM, June 1997 v 9:2.

42. Kernberg, P (1991) Children with Conduct Disorders, Basic Books.

43. Wasdell D (1998) Abstract for 12th Congress of ISPPM in Congress Guide.

44. Kitzinger S (1991) Home Birth & other alternatives to hospital, Dorling K.

45. Liedloff J (1989) The Continuum Concept,(Duckworth 75) Arkana.

46. Janov A (1975) The Primal Revolution, Abacus.

47. Crisan H (1995) The I and its two worlds, 29A Heidelberg D-69118 Germany. Email horiacrisan@t-onhne.de.

48. Sahlberg ON (1999) The Prenatal Self Becoming Conscious: Christ and Buddha, IJPPM, 2, 1, 49-56.

49. House AR (2000) St. Francis ofAssisi, Chatto and Windus.

50. Tournier P (1957) The Meaning of Persons, SCM.

51. Lake F (1982) With Respect, Darton LT.

52. Peters J (1989) Frank Lake, the man and his work, DLT.

Simon H. House, MA (Natural Sciences and Theology)

Simon H House is a priest in the Church of England with experience in counselling, particularly primal integration therapy. He retired early from parish work to elucidate and promote ways from before conception of bringing children into the world, which can prevent physiological and psychological impairment. He can be reached at 22 Stanley Street, Southsea, Portsmouth PO5 2DS. Email: shhouse@dircon.co.uk

This article contains both footnotes indicated in superscript and Reference notes.

APPENDIX: Context and Follow-up of Lake's Work

Psychotherapeutic innovations ('germs of genius') valued by Lake,

Bio-energetics, A Lowen, New York, Coward McCann and Geoghegan, 1975.

Gestalt Therapy, F S Peris, New York Dell 1951

Reality Therapy, W Glasser, Harper and Row 1965

Re-evaluation Counselling, H Jackins, The Human Situation, National Island, Seattle 1973

Primal Therapy, Arthur Janov, The Primal Scream, New York, Putnams 1970

Tansactional Analysis, E Berne, Games People Play, Penguin 1964

Writers on personal development, society and psychotherapy particularly valued by Lake

Erickson E., Childhood and Society, Penguin 1965

Kierkegaard S, Journals and Papers, Indiana University Press 1955

Mowrer O H, The Crisis in Society and Religion, Princeton, D van Nostrand 1961

Truax CB and Carkhuff RR, Towards Effective Counselling and Psychotherapy, Chicago, Aldine, 1967

Sources on Lake

Lake: Clinical Theology, Tight Corners, With Respect, Third Trimester, In the Spirit of Truth, unpublished papers.

Other authors/editors: Carol Christian, Stephen Maret, John Peters, Roy Ridgway, David Wasdell, Amethyst, Clinical Theology Association (CTA).

Organisations currently extending Lake's ways of working:

Clinical Theology Association


Meridian Matrix.