Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
This qualitative study was designed to explore the childbirth expectations of primiparas' (women pregnant for the first time) in light of current scientific understandings of consciousness. In-depth before-and-after-birth interviews were conducted. Explicit expectations were compared with implicit expectations portrayed through drawings of an ideal birth (a projective technique) rendered during the first interview. Participants experienced outcomes that differed from their conscious expectations. Indications of their unconscious expectations were evident in both their dialogues and drawings. It could be deduced that these women experienced what they unconsciously expected. Although phenomenology served as the model for data collection, feminist theory, art interpretation, prenatal and perinatal psychology, consciousness studies, and quantum physics each contributed to interpretation of the data. The implications for expanding the awareness of consciousness into the realms of pregnancy and childbirth are far-reaching, potentially enhancing the lives of mothers and babies while improving the quality of education and services designed to reach this vital and vulnerable population.
Acker, J., Barry, K., & Esseveld, J. (1983). Objectivity and truth: Problems in doing feminist research. Women's Studies International Forum, 6(4), 423-435.
Amen, D. (1998). Change your brain, change your life. New York: Times Books.
Beck, C.T. (1992). The lived experience of postpartum depression: A phenomenological study. Nursing Research, 41(3), 166-170.
Braud, W. & Anderson, R. (1998). Transpersonal research methods for the social sciences: Honoring human experience. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Davis-Floyd, R-E. (1992). Birth as an American rite of passage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Dossey, L. (1982). Space, time & medicine. Boulder, CO: Shambala.
Elias, L.J. & Saucier, D.M. (2006). Neuropsychology: Clinical and experimental foundations. Boston: Pearson Education.
England, P. & Horowitz, R. (1998). Birthing from within. Albuquerque, NM: Partera.
Gamble, J.A., Creedy, D.K, Webster, J-, & Moyle, W. (2002). A review of the literature on debriefing or non-directive counselling to prevent postpartum emotional distress. Midwifery, 18, 72-79.
Gates, D. (1995). Spectradynamics: Teacher's manual. Unpublished manuscript.
Gergen, M., Chrisler, J.C., & LoCicero, A. (1999). Innovative methods: Resources for research, publishing, and teaching. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 431-456.
Gibbins, J. & Thomson, A.M. (2001). Women's expectations and experiences of childbirth. Midwifery, 17, 302-313.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. NY: Bantam.
Green, J.M. (1993). Expectations and experiences of pain in labor: Findings from a large prospective study. Birth, 20(2), 65-72.
Green, J.M., Coupland, V.A., & Kitzinger, J.V. (1990). Expectations, experiences, and psychological outcomes of childbirth: A prospective study of 825 women. Birth, 17(1), 15-24.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany, NY: SUNY.
Halldorsdottir, S. & Karlsdottir, S.I. (1996). Journeying through labour and delivery: Perceptions of women who have given birth. Midwifery, 12, 48-61.
Hallgren, A., Kihlgren, M., Norberg, A., & Forslin, L. (1995). Women's perceptions of childbirth and childbirth education before and after education and birth. Midwifery, 11, 130-137.
Highsmith, S., Landsberg, C., & Vernallis, M.A, (2004). Babies know (DVD). Santa Barbara, CA: Santa Barbara Graduate Institute.
Hodnett, E.D. (2002). Pain and women's satisfaction with the experience of childbirth: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 186, S160-172.
Holmes, T.H. & Rahe, R.H. (1967). Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS). Retrieved March 1, 2006, from http://chipts.ucla.edu/assessment/Assessment._Instruments/ Assessment_fues_new/assess_srrs.htm
Ip, W.Y., Chien, W.T., & Chan, C.L. (2003). Childbirth expectations of Chinese first-time pregnant women. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(2), 151-158.
Jordan, B. (1997). Authoritative knowledge and its construction. In R.E. Davis-Floyd & C.F. Sargent (Eds.), Childbirth and authoritative knowledge (pp. 132-158). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Kitzinger, S. (2005). The politics of birth. London: Eisevier Butterworth Heinemann.
Klopfer, W.G. (1981). Integration of projective techniques in the clinical case study. In A.I. Rabin (Ed.), Assessment with projective techniques (pp. 233-263). NY: Springer.
Lather, P. (1991). Getting smart: Feminist research and pedagogy with/in the postmodern. NY: Routledge.
Lazarus, E. (1997). What do women want? In R.E. Davis-Floyd & C.F. Sargent (Eds.), Childbirth and authoritative knowledge (pp. 132-158). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Le Doux, J. (1998). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. NY: Touchstone.
Lipton, B.H. (2001). The biology of complementary medicine. Self-published.
Lipton, B.H. (2005). The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter, and miracles. Santa Rosa, CA: Mountain of Love/Elite Books.
McCarty, W.A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.
Newman, B.M. & Newman, P.R. (2006). Development through life: A psychosocial approach (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomason & Wadsworth.
Ornstein, R. (1991). The evolution of consciousness. NY: Prentice Hall.
Oster, G.D. & Crone, P. (2004). Using drawings in assessment and therapy. NY: Brunner-Routledge.
Oster, G.D. & Gould, P. (1987). Using drawings in assessment and therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3r ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Pelletier, K.R. (1992). Mind as healer, mind as slayer. New York: Delta.
Pert, C. (Speaker). (2000). Your body is your subconscious mind (Cassette Recording). Boulder, CO: Sounds True.
Rabin, A.I. (1968). Projective techniques in personality assessment. NY: Springer.
Raphael-Leff, J. (2001). Psychological processes of childbearing (Rev. ed.). Colchester, UK: CPS Psychoanalytic Publication Series.
Rudestam, K.E. & Newton, R.R. (2001). Surviving your dissertation (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Silver, R. (2001). Art as language: Access to thought and feelings through stimulus drawings. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
Stolte, K. (1987). A comparison of women's expectation of labor with the actual event. Birth, 14(2), 99-103.
Szegedy-Maszak, M. (2005, February 28). Mysteries of the mind: Your unconscious is making your everyday decisions. U. S. News & World Report, 138(1), 52-61.
Talbot, M. (1992). The holographic universe. NY: Harper Perennial.
Tallis, F. (2002). Hidden minds. London: Profile Books.
Waldenstrom, U., Borg, LM., Olsson, B., Skold, M., & Wall, S. (1996). The childbirth experience: A study of 295 new mothers. Birth, 23(3), 144-153.
Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. (1989). NY: Gramercy.
Wilson, T.D. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
To speak with a representative about our products and services or for technology inquiries, please call 1-720-490-5612.