Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Publication Date: 
March, 1989
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 

This article describes the basic parameters of psychotherapy for infants and children. The essential core of the therapy is described as relational, requiring empathy and compassionate contact. Fundamental techniques to uncover pre- and perinatal trauma are discussed, and research results from 15 years of development and evaluation are summarized. Successful treatment requires cooperative efforts of parents, physicians, nurses, midwives, psychotherapists, chiropractors, cranial osteopaths, and others.


Aldrich, C.A., Sung, C, and Knop, C. The crying of newly born babies, The Individual Phase. Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 27, 1945.

Armstrong, T. The radiant child Wheaton: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1985.

Assagioli, R. Psychosynthesis New York: Viking Press, 1965.

Axline, V. Play therapy New York: Ballantine Books, 1969.

Bucke, R. Cosmic consciousness New York: E.P. Dutton, 1923.

Campbell, J. The hero with a thousand faces New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1968.

Chamberlain, D. Consciousness at birth: A review of the empirical evidence. San Diego, Chamberlain Communications, 1983.

Ehrenwald, J. Parent-child symbiosis: Cradle of ESP. In The ESP experience, A psychiatric validation New York: Basic Books, 1978.

Emerson, W. Birth and life: The hazy mirrors. London: Self and Society, 1978.

Emerson, W. Infant and child birth refacilitation. Institute for Holistic Education, University of Surrey, 1984.

Emerson, W. Infant and child birth refacilitation. San Diego: Paper Presented at the Preand Peri-natal Psychology Congress, 1985.

Emerson, W. Refacilitation of birth in infants and children: A videofilm. Petaluma, Ca., Human Potential Resources, 1985.

Emerson, W. Primal therapy with infants. Aesthema, 1987a.

Emerson, W. Therapy with infants and children. Unpublished Manuscript. Petaluma, Ca.: Human Potential Resources, 1987b.

Emerson, W. Psychotherapy with infants and children: Preventive psychology. San Francisco: Paper presented at the Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology Congress, 1987c.

Emerson, W. Consciousness in infants and children: Research reviews and case evaluations. Unpublished Manuscript. Petaluma, Ca.: Human Potential Resources, 1988.

Farrant, Graham. Cellular consciousness: From preconception to fertilization. The Psychology of the first ten days of life. San Diego: Paper presented at the Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Congress, 1985.

Ginott, H. Between parent and child New York: Avon Books, 1965.

Goleman, D. and Davidson, R. (Ed) Consciousness: The brain, states of awareness, and alternate realities. New York: Irvington Publishers, 1979.

Grof, S. Realms of the human unconscious New York: The Viking Press, 1975.

Janov, A. The primal scream Aylesbury, Bucks: Hazell, Watson, & Viney, 1974.

Jung, C.G. The symbolic life. R.F.C. Hull, trans., The collected works of C.G. Jung, Vol. 18, Princeton University Press, 1950.

Kalff, D. Sandplay Santa Monica, Ca: Sigo Press, 1980.

Kellogg, R. Analyzing children's art Palo Alto, Ca.: Mayfield, 1970.

Khamsi, S. Birth feelings: A phenomenological investigation. Aesthema, Issue 7, 1987.

Laing, R. The facts of life New York: Penguin Books, 1977.

Lake, F. Clinical theology London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1966.

Lake, F. Tight corners in pastoral counseling London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1981.

Moody, R. Life after life Atlanta: Mockingbird, 1975.

Mott, F. Play therapy and infantile paralysis Great Britain: The Integration Publishing Co., 1952.

Moustakas, C. Psychotherapy with children New York: Ballantine Books, 1959.

Neumann, E. The origins and history of consciousness New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1954.

Piaget, J. The origins of intelligence in children New York: International University Press, 1952.

Pearce, J.C. Magical child New York, Bantam Press, 1980.

Ray, S. & Mandel, B. Birth and relationships Berkeley, Celestial Arts, 1987.

Rothgeb, C. (Ed.) Abstracts of the standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud New York: International Universities Press, 1973.

Rothgeb, C. (Ed.) Abstracts of the collected works of C.G. Jung Rockville, Ma.: DHEW Publication, National Institute of Mental Health, 1978.

Solter, Aletha J. The aware baby: A new approach to parenting Goleta, Ca., Shining Star Press, 1984.

Steiner, R. The education of the child in the light of anthroposophy London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1965.

Truax, C. and Carkhuff, R. Toward effective counseling and psychotherapy. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1967.

Verny, T. and Kelly, J. The Secret Life of the Unborn Child New York: Summit Books, 1981.

Webster, A. Meriam. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1961.

Weinrib, E. Images of the self Boston: Sigo Press, 1983.

Wilber, K. The pre/trans fallacy. Re-Vision, Vol. 3, #2, 1980, pp. 51-72.

William R. Emerson, Ph.D.

Address reprint requests to William R. Emerson, Ph.D., 4940 Bodega Ave. Petaluma, CA 94952