Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
Relations between prenatal role quality and dual-earner parents' postnatal depression are rarely studied. We prospectively examined relations among prenatal role quality, life satisfaction, and dual-earner parents' depression after the birth of their first child. Ninety-nine couples provided data between 20 and 40 weeks gestation and 8 and 10 postnatal weeks. We tested two hypotheses: 1) Mothers' prenatal depression would increase postnatally compared with fathers' and 2) Greater prenatal work-family strain, role disparity and intensity, and less life satisfaction would relate to greater postnatal depression. Fathers' pre- to postnatal depression increased while mothers' decreased. Poorer role quality and less life satisfaction were associated with increased postnatal depression, after controlling for prenatal depression, age, and gender.
KEY WORDS: dual-earners, depression, role quality, transition to parenting.
Affonso, D.D. (1992). Depression symptoms in pregnant-postpartum women. International Journal of Psychology, 27, 448-449.
Areias, M.E.G., Kumar, R., Barros, H., & Figueiredo, E. (1996a). Comparative incidence of depression in women and men during pregnancy and after childbirth: Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale in Portuguese mothers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 30-35.
Areias, M.E.G., Kumar, R., Barros, H., & Figueiredo, E. (1996b). Correlates of postnatal depression in mothers and fathers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 36-41.
Atienza, F.L., Balaguer, L, & Garcia-Merita, M.L. (2003). Satisfaction with Life Scale: Analysis of factorial invariance across sexes. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1255-60.
Ballard, C.G., Davis, R., Cullen, P.C., Mohan, R.N., & Dean, C. (1994). Prevalence of postnatal psychiatry morbidity in mothers and fathers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 782-788.
Barnett, R.C., Brennan, R.T., Raudenbush, S.W., & Marshall, N.L. (1994). Gender and the relationship between marital role quality and psychological distress - a study of women and men in dual-earner couples. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 105-127.
Baruch, G.K. & Barnett, R.C. (1986). Role quality, multiple role involvement and psychological well-being in midlife women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 578-585.
Brennan, R.T. & Barnett, R.C. (1998). Negative affectivity: How serious a threat to self-report studies of psychological distress? Women's Health: Research on Gender, Behavior, and Policy, 4, 369-383.
Campbell, M.L. & Moen, P. (1992). Job-family strain among employed single mothers of preschoolers. Family Relations, 41, 205-211.
Chung, E.K., McCollum, K.F., Elo, I.T., Lee, H.J., & Culhane, J.F. (2004). Maternal depressive symptoms and health practices among low-income women. Pediatrics, 113, e523-529. Retrieved January 29, 2006 from http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e523
Davé, S., Nazareth, I., Sherr, L., & Senior, R. (2005). The association of paternal mood and infant temperament: a pilot study. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23, 606-621.
Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31, 103-57.
Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
Edwards, A.B., Zarit, H., Stephens, M.A.P., & Townsend, A. (2002). Employed family caregivers of cognitively impaired elderly: An examination of role strain and depressive symptoms. Aging & Mental Health, 6, 55-61.
Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows. London: Sage.
Field, T. (1992). Infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 49-66.
Gavin, N.I., Gaynes, B.N., Lohr, K., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 106, 1071-1083.
Gjerdingen, D.K. & Center, B.A. (2003). First-time parents' prenatal to postpartum changes in health and relation of postpartum health to work and partner characteristics. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 16, 304-311.
Glazier, R.H., Elgar, F.J., Goel, V., & Holzapfel, S. (2004). Stress, social support, and emotional distress in a sample of pregnant women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 25, 247-255.
Goode, W. J. (1960). A theory of role strain. American Sociological Review, 25, 483-496.
Goodman, J.H. (2004). Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45, 26-35.
Goodman, S.H., Brogan, D., Lynch, M.E., & Fielding, B. (1993). Social and emotional competence in children of depressed mothers. Child Development, 64, 516-531.
Greenberger, E. & O'Neil, R. (1993). Spouse, parent, worker: Role commitments and role-related experiences in the construction of adults' well-being. Developmental Psychology, 29, 184-197.
Greenhaus, J.H. & Parasuraman, S. (1986). A work-nonwork interactive perspective of stress and its consequences. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 8, 37-60.
Hall, W. (1987). The experience of women returning to work following the birth of their first child. Midwifery, 3, 187-95.
Hall, W.A. (1992). Comparison of the experience of women and men in dual-earner families following the birth of their first infant. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 24, 34-38.
Hall, W.A. (1993). Development and early testing of the Role Enactment Questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 25, 57-65.
Logsdon, M.C. & Usui, W. (2001). Psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression in diverse groups of women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 23, 563-574.
Marchand, J.F. & Hock, E. (1998). The relation of problem behaviors in preschool children to depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 353-366.
Marshall, N.L. & Barnett, R.C. (1993). Work-family strains and gains among two-earner couples. Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 64-78.
Meyer, C., Rumpf, H., Hapke, U., & John, U. (2004). Impact of psychiatric disorders in the general population: Satisfaction with life and influence of comorbidity and disorder duration. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 435-441.
Murray, L. & Cooper, P.J. (1997). Postpartum depression and child development. Psychological Medicine, 27, 253-260.
Murray, L., Stanley, C., Hooper, R., King, F., & Fiori-Cowley, A. (1996). The role of infant factors in postnatal depression and mother-infant interactions. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 109-119.
Perren, S., von Wyl, A., Bürgin, D., Simoni, H., & von Klitzing, K. (2005). Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress across the transition to parenthood: Associations with parental psychopathology and child difficulty. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26, 173-183.
Piechowski, L.D. (1992). Mental health and women's multiple roles: Families in Society. The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 73, 131-139.
Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.
Raskin, V.D., Richman, J.A., & Gaines, C. (1990). Patterns of depressive symptoms in expectant and new parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 658-660.
Ross, L.E., Sellers, E.M., Gilbert Evans, S.E., & Romach, M.K. (2004). Mood changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period: development of a biopsychosocial model. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 457-466.
SPSS (1999). SPSS 10.0 Syntax Guide. Chicago, IL: SPSS Incorporated.
Terry, D.J., Mayocchi, L., & Hynes, G.J. (1996). Depressive symptomatology in new mothers: A stress and coping perspective. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 220-231.
Tiedje, L.B., Wortman, C.B., Downey, G., Emmons, C., Biernat, M., & Lang, E. (1990). Women with multiple roles: role compatibility perceptions, satisfaction, and mental health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 63-72.
Vanier Institute of the Family. (2004). Profiling Canada's Familes III. Ottawa, Ontario: The Vanier Institute of the Family.
Walker, L.O. & Best, M.A. (1991). Well-being of mothers with infant children: A preliminary comparison of employed women and homemakers. Women & Health, 17, 71-89.
Webster, J., Hall, L., Somville, T., Schneider, P., Turnbull, R., & Smith, P. (2006). Prospective testing of the Brisbane Postnatal Depression Index. Birth, 33, 56-63.
To speak with a representative about our products and services or for technology inquiries, please call 1-720-490-5612.