Warning message

This content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
-A +A
Publication Date: 
May, 1993
Page Count: 
Starting Page: 

Research has revealed that as early as the neonatal period infants possess innate capacities such as categorization and amodal perception that help them formulate representations of the "self and "other." This paper posits that in order to formulate these representations, the infant also requires exposure to a motivational environment that provides insight into the relationships between people. "Previewing," a process deriving from the interaction between caregiver and infant, contributes to our understanding of how the caregiver's predictions are transferred to the infant, fostering the infant's achievement of a coherent sense of self and an adaptive social interaction with the caregiver.


1. Behrends, R.S., and Blatt, S.J. (1985). Internalization and psychological development throughout the life cycle. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 40, 11-39.

2. Bernstein, M. (1981). Psychological studies of color perception in human infants. In L.P. Lipsitt (Ed.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 1, pp. 1-4). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

3. Bourne, L.E. (1966). Human conceptual behavior. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

4. Bowen, M. (1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.

5. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.

6. -(1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry 145(1), 1-10.

7. Bretherton, I. (1985). Attachment theory: Retrospect and prospect. In I. Bretherton & E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50 (1-2, Serial No. 209).

8. -(1987). New perspective on attachment relations: security, communication and internal working models. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Development (pp. 1061-1100). New York: Wiley.

9. -(1990). Communication patterns, internal working models, and the intergenerational transmission of attachment relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal 11(3), 237-252.

10. Bruner, J.S., Goodnow, J.J., and Austin, G.A. (1956). A study of thinking. New York: Wiley.

11. Campos, J. J., Campos, E.G., and Barrett, K.C. (1989). Emergent themes in the study of emotional development and emotion regulation. Developmental Psychology 25(3), 394-402.

12. Crittenden, P.M. (1985a). Maltreated infants: Vulnerability and resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 26, 85-96.

13. -(1985b). Social networks, quality of child rearing, and child development. Child Development 56, 1299-1313.

14. DSM-III-R, Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 3rd Ed.-Rev. (1987). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C.

15. Fernald, A. and Kuhl, P. (1987). Acoustic determinants of infant preference for motherese speech. Infant behavior and Development 10, 279-293.

16. Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E., and Shapiro, V. (1977). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problems of impaired infant-mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 14, 387-421.

17. Gibson, E.J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Appleton-Centry-Crofts.

18. Haith, M.M., Kazan, C., and Goodman, G.S. (1988). Expectation and anticipation of dynamic visual events by 3.5-month-old babies. Child Development 59, 467-479.

19. Harter, S. (1974). Pleasure derived by children from cognitive challenge and mastery. Child Development 45, 661-669.

20. -(1977). The effects of social reinforcement and task difficulty level on the pleasure derived by normal and retarded children from cognitive challenge and mastery. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 24, 476-494.

21. Hayne, H., Rovee-Collier, C., and Perris, E.E. (1987). Categorization and memory retrieval by three-month-olds. Child Development 58, 750-767.

22. Kurzweil, S.R. (1988). Recognition of mother from multisensory interactions in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development 11, 235-243.

23. Main, M., Kaplan, K., and Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood. A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton and E. Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50(1-2, Serial No. 209), 66-104.

24. Medin, D.L. (1983). Structural principles in categorization. In B. Shepp and T. Tighe (Eds.), Interaction: Perception, development and cognition (pp. 203-230). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

25. Messer, D.J., and Vietze, P.M. (1988). Does mutual influence occur during motherinfant social gaze? Infant Behavior and Development 11, 97-110.

26. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

27. Nelson, K., and Gruendel, J. (1981). Generalized event representations: Basic building blocks of cognitive development. In M.E. Lamb & A. Brown (Eds.), Advances in Developmental Psychology, Vol. 1. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

28. Osofsky, J.D. (1988). Attachment theory and research and the psychoanalytic process. Psychoanalytic Psychology 5(2), 159-177.

29. Papousek, H., and M. Papousek (1982). Integration into the Social World: Survey of Research. In P. Stratton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the Human Newborn. New York: Wiley.

30. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press.

31. Pipp, S., Fischer, K.W., and Jennings, S. (1987). Acquisition of self and mother knowledge in infancy. Developmental Psychology 23, 86-96.

32. Resnick, J.S., and Kagan, J. (1983). Category detection in infancy. In L.P. Lipsitt (Ed.), Advances in infancy research (Vol. 2, pp. 79-111). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

33. Schank, R.C. & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

34. Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism. An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1, 53-74.

35. -(1946). Anaclitic depression. Psychoanalytical Study of the Child 2, 113-117.

36. Stern, D.N. (1985). The Interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.

37. -(1989). The representation of relational patterns: developmental considerations. In A.J. Sameroff and R.N. Emde (Eds.), Relationship disturbances in early childhood. New York: Basic Books.

38. Stern-Bruschweiler, N., and Stern, D.N. (1989). A model for conceptualizing the role of the mother's representational world in various mother-infant therapies. Infant Mental Health Journal 10(3), 142-155.

39. Trad, P.V. (1989a). The preschool child: Assessment, diagnosis, and treatment New York: Wiley.

40. -(1989b). Self-mutilation in a new mother: A strategy for separating from her infant. American Journal of Psychotherapy 43, 414-425.

41. -(1990a). Infant previewing: Predicting and sharing interpersonal outcomes. New York: Springer-Verlag.

42. -(1990b). Emergence and resolution of ambivalence in expectant mothers. American Journal of Psychotherapy 44, 577-589.

43. -(1992). Interventions with infants and parents: The theory and practice of previewing. New York: Wiley.

44. Trevarthen, C. (1980). The foundations of intersubjectivity: Development of interpersonal and cooperative understanding in infants. In D.R. Olson (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought Essays in honor of Jerome S. Bruner (pp. 316-342). New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

45. -(1985). Facial expressions of emotion in mother-infant interaction. Human Neurobiology 4, 21-32.

46. Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York: Norton.

47. White, R.W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review 66, 297-333.

48. Zeanah, C.H., and Anders, T.F. (1987). Subjectivity in parent-infant relationships: a discussion of internal working models. Infant Mental Health Journal 8(3), 237-249.

49. Zeanah, C.H., Keener, M.A., Stewart, L., and Anders, T.F. (1985). Prenatal perception of infant personality: a preliminary investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 24(2), 204-210.

Paul V. Trad, M.D.

Paul V. Trad, M.D., is Director of the Child and Adolescent Outpatient Department, Cornell University Medical Center, Westchester Division, 21 Bloomingdale Road, White Plains, New York 10605.