Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
A host of corresponding sensations and dynamics may be present during birth and during sexual abuse. Physical, emotional and environmental similarities between the original experience of birth and sexual abuse imbue these traumas with common symptomology, feelings and life patterns. The "terrain" of both traumas is the body which often stores both memories and affect. Later sexual abuse traumas often become merged with earlier birth and prenatal traumas. In the therapeutic setting the symptomology, abreaction and artistic expression of these two issues can be highly similar. These issues and concerns have only been briefly dealt with in the literature. Only a handful of clinicians, consulted during the preparation of this paper, were familiar with or knowledgeable about significant psychological relationships between sexual abuse and the trauma of birth.
Alford, J.D. (1992). Post-traumatic stress: Loss of control and attributes of personal responsibility. Tie Lines, IX(1).
Allan, J. (1988). Spontaneous and directed drawings with sexually and physically abused children. In J. Allan. Inscapes of the child's world. Texas: Spring Publications.
Andreason, N.C. (1985). Post traumatic stress disorder. In H.I. Kaplan and B.J. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins (4th ed., pp. 918-924).
Bates, C. and Brodsky, A. (1989). Sex in the Therapy Hour: A Case of Professional Incest. New York: Guilford Press.
Bass, E. and Davis, L. (1994). The courage to heal. New York: Harper and Row. (Original work published 1988).
Bernhardt, P. (1992). Somatic approaches to traumatic shock (or post traumatic stress): A review of the work of the Bodynamic Institute, and Peter Levine. Albany, CA: Monograph from the Bodynamic Institute.
Bernhardt, P. and Marcher, L. (1992). Individuation, mutual connection and the body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 6(4), 281-294.
Blume, S.E. (1990). Secret survivors: Uncovering incest and its aftereffects in women. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Brackbill, Y. (1979). Obstetrical medication and infant behavior. In J.D. Osofsky, Handbook of Infant Development. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Braum, B. (Ed.). (1986). Treatment of multiple personality disorder. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.
Briere, J. (1989). Therapy for adults molested as children: Beyond Survival. New York: Springer.
Buchheimer, A. (1987). Memory-preverbal and verbal. In T. Verny (Ed.). Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press.
Burgess, A.W. and Holstrom, L.L. (1974). Sexual trauma of children and adolescents: Pressure, sex and secrecy. Nursing Clinics of North America, 10, 554-536.
Burgess, A.W, and Holstrom, L.L. (1979). Rape: Crisis and Recovery. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Butler, S. (1978). Conspiracy of silence: The trauma of incest. San Francisco, CA: Volcano Press.
Cantano, W. and Cantano, VM. (1987). The infantile amnesia paradigm: Possible effects of stress associated with childbirth. In T.J. Verny, Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction (pp. 36-51). New York: Human Sciences Press.
Capacchione, L. and Bardsley, S. (1994). Creating a joyful birth experience: Developing a partnership with your unborn child for healthy pregnancy, labor and early parenting. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Carr, M. and Robinson, E. (1990). Fatal Attraction: The ethical and clinical dilemma of patient-therapist sex. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 36.
Carter, B.A. (1991). Birth, death, sexuality: and interrelated matrix in the unconscious. (Doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute). Dissertation Abstracts International.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1982). Symposium commentary on Lloyd deMause's Fetal origins of history, Journal of Psychohistory, 10(2), 222-229.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1983). Consciousness at birth: A review of the Empirical evidence. San Diego: Chamberlain Communications.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1987). The cognitive newborn: A scientific update. The British Journal of Psychotherapy, 4(1), 30-71.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tar cher, Inc.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1989). Babies remember pain. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 3(4), 297-310.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1994). How pre- and perinatal psychology can transform the world. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 8(3), 187-200.
Courtois, C. (1988). Healing the incest wound: Adult survivors's in therapy. New York: Norton.
Crewdson, J. (1988). By silence betrayed: Sexual abuse of children in America. Boston, MA: Brown and Company.
Crowder, A. (1993). Opening the door: A treatment model for therapy with male survivors of sexual abuse. National Clearinghouse of Family Violence, Health and Welfare Canada.
Dalley, T. (Ed.) (1984). Art as therapy: An introduction to the use of art as a therapeutic technique. Bungay: Chaucer Press.
Davis, L. (1991). Allies in Healing: When the Person You Love Was Sexually Abused as a Child. New "York: Harper Perennial.
Davis-Floyd, R.E. (1990). The role of obstetrical rituals in the resolution of cultural anomaly: Part I. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 4(3), 193-212.
Davis-Floyd, R.E. (1992). Birth as an American Rite of Passage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Davis-Floyd, R.E. (1994) Mind over body: The pregnant professional. Pre- and PeriNatal Psychology Journal, 8(3), 201-228.
deMause, L. (1982). Foundations of psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots Inc.
deMause, L. (1994). Why cults kill and terrorize children. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 505-518.
Disch, E. (1989, Nov/Dec). The special case of sex and therapy: Violations of deepest trust. New Age Journal.
Dolan, YM. (1991). Resolving sexual abuse: Solution-focused therapy and Ericksonian hypnosis for adult survivors. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Durfee, M.J. (1985). Prenatal and perinatal child abuse. Syllabus of abstracts: 2nd International Congress on Pre- and Perinatal Psychology. San Diego, California.
Dunbar, F. (1944). Effect of the mother's emotional attitude on the infant. Psychosomatic Medicine, 6, 156.
Duncan, C.W. (1994). The fractured mirror: Healing multiple personality disorder. Dearfield, Florida: Health Communications, Inc.
Emerson, W. R. (1984). Infant and childbirth refacilitation. Guilford: University of Surrey Press.
Emerson, WR. (1986). Implosive containment in infant primal therapy. Petaluma, CA: Human Potential Resources.
Emerson, WR. (1987). Primal Therapy With Infants. Aesthema: Journal of the International Primal Association, 7, 61-67.
Emerson, WR. (1988). Psychotherapy with Infants and Children: Pre-Natal Abuse. Self and Society: European Journal of Humanistic Psychology, XVI, 113-115.
Emerson, WR. (1989). Psychotherapy with Infants and Children. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 3(3), 190-217.
Engel, B. (1989). Right to Innocence: Healing the trauma of childhood sexual abuse. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc.
Fagan, J. (1991, July). Making a case for the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and maternal problems with pregnancy and delivery, together with related topics. Paper presented at the Fifth International Congress of the Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Association of North America, Atlanta, Georgia.
Farrant, G. (1987). Cellular consciousness. Aesthema: Journal of the International Primal Association, 7, 28-39.
Farrant, G. (1993). In E. Noble, Primal Connections: How our experiences from conception to birth influence our emotions, behaviour, and health. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Feher, L. (1980). The psychology of birth: The foundation of human personality. London: Souvenir Press.
Field, M. (1984/1985). The jewel in the crown: Clitoral massage as an analgesia for labor. Newsletter of the Association of Radical Midwives, 24.
Fincher, S.F. (1991). Creating mandalas. London: Shambhala.
Findeisen, B.R. (1993). Pre- and perinatal losses. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 8(1), 65-77.
Finkelhor, D., et al. (1986). A sourcebook on child sexual abuse. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Fodor, N. (1949). The search for the beloved: A clinical investigation of the trauma of birth and pre-natal Conditioning. New Hyde Park, New York: University Books.
Forward, S. and Buck, C. (1978). Betrayal of innocence: Incest and its devastation. New York: Penguin Books.
Fredrickson, R. (1992). Repressed memories: A journey to recovery from sexual abuse. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Frye, A. (1995). Holistic midwifery: A comprehensive textbook for midwives in home birth practice. Volume I. Care during pregnancy. Portland Oregon: Labrys Press.
Gabriel, M. (1992). Voices from the womb. Lower Lake, California: Asian Publishing.
Garland, K. R. (1992). Physiological effects of neonatal management. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7(1), 73-84.
Gonsiorek, J.C. (1987). Intervening with psychotherapists who sexually exploit clients. Innovations in Clinical Practice: A source book (Volume 6). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
Grof, S. (1975). Realms of the human unconscious: Observations from LSD research. New York: Viking Press.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Grof, S. (1988). The adventure of self-discovery. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.
Grof, S. and Halifax, J. (1977). The human encounter with death. New York: E. P. Button.
Gutheil, T. G. and Gabbard, G. O. (1993). The concept of boundaries in clinical practice: Theoretical and risk-management dimensions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 188-196.
Hendricks, G. and Hendricks, K. (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind perspective. Issues for public policy. Pre& Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 1(3), 230-238.
Herman, J.L. (1981). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Herman, J.L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
Hindman, J. (1989). Just before dawn. Ontario, OR: AlexAndrea Associate.
Holden, M. (1975). In A. Janov, Primal man: The new consciousness. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Holden, M. (1977). The Birth of Neurosis, The Journal of Primal Therapy. Vol. IV. No. I.
Holden, M. (1983). In A Janov, Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York: Coward-McCann.
Horowitz, M.J. (1986). Stress response syndromes. (2nd ed.). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. (Original work published 1976).
Hunter, M. (1990). Sexually abused boys. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Hull, W.F. (1986). Psychological treatment of birth trauma with age regression and its relationship to chemical dependency. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 1(2), 111-134.
Irving, M. (1986). Pre- and peri-natal expression in art. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 1(1), 86-87.
Irving, M. (1988). Natalism and the serpent/Dragon Image and myth: A study in art, mythology and pre and perinatal psychology. Unpublished Master's thesis, Vermont College.
Irving, M. (1989). Natalism as Pre and Perinatal Metaphor. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 4(2), 83-110.
Irving, M. (1993a). The Flying Red Horse: Healing the Trauma of Childhood Sexual Abuse London, ONT. HMS Press.
Irving, M. (1993b). The Healing Rose: Facing Childhood Violence and Sexual Abuse, Childhood Prostitution, Satanic Ritual Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorder. Toronto: Carriage House Studios.
Irving, M. (1995). Natalistic art in therapy: Working with birth and prenatal issues through art. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, The Union Institute. (To be published by UMI).
Irving, M. (1991). In B. Carter. Birth, death, sexuality: and interrelated matrix in the unconscious. (Doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute). Dissertation Abstracts International.
Jacobsen, B. (1988). Perinatal origin of eventual self-destructive behaviour. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 2(4), 227-241.
Janov, A. (1970). The primal scream. New York: Putman.
Janov, A. (1971). The anatomy of mental illness. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth Experience. New York: Coward-McCann.
Jhirad, A. and Vago, T. (1973). Induction of labor by breast stimulation. Obstetrics and Gynecology. (March).
Joseph, R. (1992). The right brain and the unconscious: Discovering the stranger within. New York: Plenum.
Kalichman, N. (1951). On some psychological aspects of the management of labour. Psychiatric Quarterly, 25(4), 655-671.
Kasl, C.D. (1989). Women sex and addiction: A search for love and power. New York: Harper and Row.
Kaufman, G. (1989). The psychology of shame: Theory and treatment of shame-based syndromes. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Kellogg, J. (1981). Mandala: path of beauty. Clearwater: Mari.
Keyes, M.F. (1983). Inward journey: Art as therapy. La Salle: Open Court Publishing.
Khamsi, S.K. (1987). Birth feelings: A phenomenological approach, Aesthema: Journal of the International Primal Association, 7, 46-60.
Kitzinger, J.V. (1992). Counteracting, no re-enacting the violation of women's bodies: The challenge for prenatal caregivers. Birth, 19(4), 219-220.
Klaus, P. (1985). Forum: Breaking the cycle of violence. Birth and violence: The societal impact. San Francisco: 7th International Congress of the Association for Pre- and perinatal Psychology and Health.
Lake, F. (1978). Birth trauma, claustrophobia and LSD therapy. In J. Rowan (Ed.). The individual self (pp. 10-29). London: Churchill Center.
Lake, F. (1978b). Treating psychosomatic disorders related to birth trauma. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 22, 227-238.
Lake, F. (1979). The significance of perinatal experience. In A. Pirani (Ed.), Birth and Rebirth (pp. 8-16). London: The Bourne Press, 11 Spring Road, Bournemouth, BH1 4QA, England.
Lake, F. (1981a). Studies in constricted confusion: Exploration of a pre- and peri-natal paradigm. Nottingham: The clinical Theology Association, Lingdale.
Lake, F. (1981b). Tight corners in pastoral counselling. London: Darton, Longman and Tbdd.
Lake, F. (1986). Clinical theology: A theological and psychological basis to clinical pastoral care. (Abridged by Martin H. Yeomans) London: Darton, Longman and Tbdd.
Levand, R. (1991). Sexual evolution: How your birth and rebirth affect your sexuality and what to do about it. Berkeley: Celestial Arts.
Le, Mike. (1988). Victims no longer: Men recovering from incest and other sexual abuse. New York: Nevraumont Publishing Co.
Liedloff, J. (1985). The continuum concept. Reading: Addison Wesley Publishing.
Macnaughton, L, Bentze, M., and Jarlneas, E. (1993). Ethical Consideration in Somatic Psychotherapies. Denmark: Monograph from the Bodynamic Institute.
Madsen, L. (1994). Rebounding from childbirth: Toward emotional recovery. Westport, Conn: Bergin and Garvey.
Marcher, L. (1992). In P. Bernhardt, Individuation, mutual connection and the body's resources: An interview with Lisbeth Marcher. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 6(4), 281-294.
Marcher, L.; Ollars, L. and Bernhardt, P. (1990). The bodynamic imprint method of resolving birth trauma. Albany, CA: Monograph from the Biodynamic Institute.
Maret, S. M. (1995). Marinated in my mother's misery?: Frank Lake's theory on the post-natal consequences of pre-natal stress. 7th International Congress of The Association for Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology and Health. San Francisco.
McClure, M.B. (1990). Reclaiming the heart: A handbook of help and hope for survivors of incest. New York: Warner Books.
Mehl, L.E. (1981). Psychophysiological aspects of childbirth. In Feher, L. The psychology of birth. New York: Continuum Publishers.
Mehl, L.E. (1993). The role of the mother's own experiences of being born in giving birth. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 7(3), 243-260.
Moran, M.A. (1981). Birth and the dialogue of love. Leawood, KS: New Nativity Press.
Moran, MA. (1992). Attachment or loss within marriage: The effect of the medical model of birthing on the marital bond of love. Pre- & Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 6(4), 265-268.
Moran, M.A. (1993). The effect of lovemaking on the progress of labour. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 7(3), 231-242.
Morrison, J. (1989). Childhood sexual histories of women with somatization disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 239-241.
Moss, R.C.S. (1986). Frank Lakes's maternal-fetal distress syndrome and primal integration workshops. Part II, Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology Journal, 7(1), 52-68.
Moyer, L. (1975). What obstetrical journal advertising tells about doctors and women. Birth and the Family Journal, 2(4), 111-115.
Mufson, S. and Kranz, R. (1991). Straight talk about child abuse. New York: Facts on File.
Newton, N. (1955). Maternal emotions. New York: Paul B. Hoeber Company.
Newton, N. (1992). Interrelationships between sexual responsiveness, birth, and breast feeding. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 6(4), 317-335.
Noble, E. (1993). Primal Connections: How our experiences from conception to birth influence our emotions, behaviour, and health. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Oakley (1990). The captured womb: A history of the medical care of pregnant women. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Odent, M. (1984). Birth Reborn. New York: Pantheon Books.
Oksana, C. (1994). Safe passage to healing: A guide for survivors of ritual abuse. New York: Harper Perennial.
Peterson, G.H. (1984). Birthing normally: A personal growth approach to childbirth. Berkeley, California: Mindbody Press. (Original work published 1981).
Peterson, G.H. (1993). Unlocking the door to healing. Midwifery Today, 28, pp. 25-27.
Peterson, G. H., and Mehl, L. (1984). Pregnancy as healing: A holistic philosophy for prenatal care. Berkeley, California: Mindbody Press.
Pope, K.S. (1988). How clients are harmed by sexual contact with mental health professionals: The syndrome and its prevalence. Journal of Counselling and Development, 67, 222-226.
Pope, KS. (1990). Therapist-patient sex as sex abuse: Six scientific, professional, and practical dilemmas in addressing victimization and rehabilitation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21(4), 227-239.
Pope, K.S. and Bouhoutsos, J. (1986). Sexual Intimacy Between Therapists and Patients. New York: Praeger.
Poston, C. and Lison, K. (1989). Reclaiming our lives: Hope for adult survivors of incest. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Putnam, F.W. (1989). Diagnosis and treatment of multiple personality disorder. New York: Guilford.
Rhyne, J. (1984). The gestalt art experience: Creative process and expressive therapy. Chicago: Magnolia Street Publishers.
Rice, R. (1985, April). Infant stress and the relationship to violent behaviour. Neonatal Network, 39-44.
Rich, A. (1976). Of woman born: Motherhood as experience and institution. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Riley, C.M. (1987) Transuterine communication in problem pregnancies. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 1(3), 180-190.
Roberts, B. (1983). No Safe Place: The war against women. Our Generation, 15(4).
Rochman, S. (1993). Massage therapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Massage, 43, 32-39.
Roedding, J. (1991). Birth trauma and suicide: A study of the relationship between near-death experiences at birth and later suicidal behaviour. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 6(2), 145-170.
Rossi, E.L. and Cheek, D.B. (1988). Mind-body therapy: Ideodynamic healing in hypnosis. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
Roth, C. (1985). Birth and Life: The Treatment of Susan Using Mandala Art. In Syllabus of Abstracts, 2nd International Congress on Pre and Perinatal Psychology.
Rush, F. (1980). The best kept secret: Sexual abuse of children. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Rutter, P. (1989, Nov/Dec). Sex in the forbidden zone, New Age Journal.
Sachs, R.G. (1990). The role of sex and pregnancy in satanic cults. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 5(2), 105-114.
Sakheim, D.K. and Devine, S.E. (1992). Out of darkness: Exploring satanism and ritual abuse. New York: Lexington Books.
Salk, L., Lipsitt, L.P., Stumer, W.Q., Reilly, B. and Lev