Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
Advances in modern medicine in recent years have resulted in a remarkable increase in the number of human infants who survive a premature birth. Many of these infants undergo stressful perinatal and prenatal experiences, and require special care and attention in order for their physical and mental development to be optimal. If that goal is to be met, care-givers need to receive feedback from the infants, indicating how they are affected by treatment and stimulation. In this study, preterm infants displayed behavioral differentiation of various tactile stimuli. A number of behaviors are highlighted, which are indicative of physiological integration of environmental stimuli, and which can be used by care-givers as guides in their interaction with the infants.
Als, H. (1984). Manual for the Naturalistic Observation of Newborn Behavior (Preterm and Fullterm Infants). Unpublished manuscript from the Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.
Als, H. and Brazelton, T.B. (1981). A New Model of Assessing the Behavioral Organization in Preterm and Fullterm Infants. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 239-263.
Als, H., Lawhon, G., Brown, E., Gibes, R., Duffy, F., McAnulty, G. and Blickman, J. (1986). Individualized Behavioral and Environmental Care for the Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infant at Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: NICU and Developmental Outcom. Pediatrics, 78, 1123-1132.
Als, H., Lester, B.M. and Brazelton, B.T. Dynamics of the Behavioral Organization of the Premature Infant: A theoretical Perspective. In: T.M. Field, A.M. Sostek, S. Goldberg and H.H. Shuman (Eds.) Infants Born At Risk. NY: SP Medical Sci., 1979.
Anderson, J. (1986). Sensory Intervention With the Preterm Infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 40, 19-26.
Anderson, J. and Auster-Leibhaber, J. (1984). Developmental Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 4, 89-107.
Aylward, G.P. (1981). The Developmental Course of Behavioral States in Preterm Infants: A Descriptive Study. Child Development, 52, 564-568.
Barnard, K.E. and Bee, H.L. (1983). The Impact of Temporally Patterned Stimulation on the Development of Preterm Infants. Child Development, 54, 1156-1167.
Berkson, G., Wasserman, G.A. and Behrman, R.E. (1974). Heart Rate Response to an Auditory Stimulus in Premature Infants. Psychophysiology, 11, 244-246.
Brazelton, T.B. The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, 50. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1973.
Bridger, W., and Reiser, M. (1959). Psychophysiologic Studies of the Neonate: An Approach Toward the Methodological and Theoretical Problems Involved. Psychosomatic Medicine, 21, 265-276.
Broman, S. Prenatal Anoxia and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. In T.M. Field, A.M. Sostek, S. Goldberg and H.H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants at Risk. SP Medical and Scientific Books, 1979.
Cabal, L.A., Siass, B., Zanini, B., Hodgmman, J.E. and Hon, E.E. (1980). Factors Affecting Heart Rate Variability in Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 65, 50-56.
Cornell, E.H. and Gottfried, A.W. (1976). Intervention With Premature Human Infants. Child Development, 47, 32-39.
Dorros, K. (1977). A Comparison of Auditory Behavior in the Premature and Fullterm Infant: The Effects of Intervention. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 2900-2901.
Dorros, K., Body, N. and Rose, S.A. (1979). A Comparison of Auditory Behavior in the Premature and Fullterm Infants: The effects of Intervention. In H.D. Kemmel, E.H. Van Olst and J.F. Oriebeke (Eds): The Orienting Reflex in Humans. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. p. 619-654.
Dreyfus-Brisac, C. (1970). Ontogenesis of Sleep in Human Prematures After 32 Weeks of Conceptional Age. Developmental Psychobiology, 3, 91-121.
Field, T.M. (1979a). Differential Behavioral and Cardiac Responses of 3-month-old Infants to a Mirror and Peer. Infant Behavior and Development, 2, 179-184.
Field, T.M. (1979b). Visual and Cardiac Responses to Animate and Inanimate Faces by young Term and Preterm Infants. Child Development, 50, 188-194.
Field, T.M. (1981). Infant Gaze Aversion and Heart Rate During Face-to-Face Interactions. Infant Behavior and Development, 4, 307-315.
Field, T.M., Dempsey, J.R., Hatch, J., Ting, G. and Clifton, R.K. (1979). Cardiac and Behavioral Responses to Repeated Tactile and Auditory Stimulation by Preterm and Term Neonates. Developmental Psychology, 15, 406-416.
Field, T.M., Hallock, N., Ting, G., George, Dempsey, J., Dabiri, D. and Shuman, H:H. (1978). A First-Year Follow-up of High-Risk Infants: Formulating a Cumulative Risk Index. Child Development, 49, 119-131.
Finkelstein, N.W. and Ramey, CT. (1977). Learning to Control the Environment in Infancy. Child Development, 48, 806.
Fox, N.A. (1983). Maturation of Autonomic Control in Preterm Infants. Developmental Psychology, 16, 495-504.
Fox, N.A. and Lewis, M. (1983). Cardiac Response to Speech Sounds in Preterm Infants: Effects of Postnatal Illness at Three Months. Psychophysiology, 20, 481-488.
Fox, N.A. and Porges, S.W. (1985). The Relation Between Neonatal Heart Period Patterns and Developmental Outcome. Child Development, 56, 28-37.
Francis-Williams, J. and Davies, P.A. (1974). Very Low Birth Weights and Later Intelligence. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 16, 709.
Gottfried, A.W. (1973). Intellectual Consequences of Perinatal Anoxia. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 231.
Graham, F.K. and Clifton, R.K. (1966). Heart-rate Change as a Component of the Orienting Response. Psychological Bulletin, 65, 305-320.
Graham, F.K. and Jackson, J.C Arousal Systems and Infant Heart Rate Responses. In: H.W. Reese (Ed). Advanced Child Development and Behavior. New York: Academic, 1970, p. 59-117.
Hack, M., Fanaroff, A.A., and Merkatz, K.R. (1979). The Low Birth Weight Infant. New England Journal of Medicine, 301, 1162.
Hammer, M. and Turkewitz, G. (1974). A Sensory Basis for the Lateral Difference in the Newborn Infant's Response to Somesthetic Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 304-312.
Katz, V. (1971). Auditory Stimulation and Developmental Behavior of the Premature Infant. Nursing Research, 20, 196-201.
Korner, A.F., Kraemer, H.C and Haffner, M.E. (1975). Effects of Waterbed Floatation on Premature Infants: A Pilot Study. Pediatrics, 56, 361-367.
Kramer, L.I. and Peirpont, M.E. (1976). Rocking Waterbed and Auditory Stimuli to Enhance Growth of Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 88, 297-299.
Lacey, J.I. and Lacey, B.C. (1962). The Law of Initial Value in the Longitudinal Study of Autonomic constitution: Reproducibility of Autonomic Responses and Response Patterns Over a Four-Year Interval. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 98, 1257-1290.
Lacey, J.I. and Lacey, B.C. (1980). The Specific Role of Heart Rate in Sensorimotor Integration. In: R.F. Thompson, L.H. Hicks and V.B. Shryrkov (Eds). Neural Mechanisms of Goal Directed Behavior and Learning. Academic Press, ch 34.
Lawhon, G. (1986). Management of Stress in Premature Infants. In: D.J. Angelini, CM. Whelen Knapp and R.M. Gibes (Eds). Perinatal/Neonatal Nursing: A Clinical Handbook. Boston: Blackwell Sci. Pub., 319-328.
Lawson, K., Daum, C. and Turkowitz, G. (1977). Environmental Characteristics of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Child Development, 48, 1633-1639.
Lazzara, A., Ahmann, P., Dykes, F., Brann, A.W. and Schwartz, J. (1980). Clinical Predictability of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 65, 30-34.
Linn, P.L., Horowitz, F.D. and Fox, H.A. (1985). Stimulation in the NICU: Is More Necessarily Better? Clinics In Perinatology, 12, 407-241.
Mednick, B.R. (1977). Intellectual and Behavioral Functioning of Ten to Twelve Year Old Children Who Showed Certain Transient Symptoms in the Neonatal Period. Child Development, 48, 844-853.
Neal, M. (1968). Vestibular Stimulation and Developmental Behavior of the Small Premature Infant. Nursing Research Report, 3, 2-4.
Porges, S.W. (1974). Heartrate Indices of Newborn Attentional Responsivity. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 20, 231-254.
Rose, S. (1980). Enhancing Visual Recognition Memory in Preterm Infants. Developmental Psychology, 16, 85-92,
Rose, S.A., Schmidt, K. and Bridger, W.H. (1976). Cardiac and Behavioral Responsivity to Tactile Stimulation in Premature and Fullterm Infants. Development Psychology, 12, 311-320.
Rose, S.A., Schmidt, K. and Bridger, W.H. (1978). Changes in Tactile Responsivity During Sleep in the Human Newborn Infant. Developmental Psychology, 14, 163-172.
Rose, S. A., Schmidt, K., Riese, M.L. and Bridger, W.H. (1980). Effects of Prematurity and Early Intervention on Responsivity to Tactual Stimuli: a Comparison of Preterm and Fullterm Infants. Child Development, 51, 416-425.
Rothchild, B.F. (1967). Incubator Isolation as a Possible Contributing Factor to the High Incidence of Emotional Disturbance Among Prematurely Born Persons. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 110, 287-304.
Schulman, C. (1969). Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Heartrate in Premature Infants as a Function of Level of Arousal, Probability of CNS Damage, and Conceptional Age. Developmental Psychology, 2, 172-183.
Sokolov, E.N. (1963). Perception and the Conditioned Reflex. New York: Macmillan, 1963.
Solkoff, N. and Matuszak, D. (1975). Tactile Stimulation and Behavioral Development Among Low-Birthweight Infants. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6, 33-37.
Volpe, J.J. Neurology of the Newborn. In A.J. Schaffer (Ed.), Major Problems in Clinical Pediatrics (Vol. 12). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1981.
Vranekovic, G., Hock, E., Isaac, P., and Cordero, L. (1974). Heartrate Variability and Cardiac Response to an Auditory Stimulus. Biological Neonatology, 24, 66-73.
White, J.L., and Labarba, R.C (1976). The Effect of Tactile and Kinesthetic Stimulation on Neonatal Development in the Premature Infant. Developmental Psychology, 9, 569-577.
Widmayer, S.M. and Field, T.M. (1981). Effects of Brazelton Demonstrations for Mothers on the Development of Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 67, 711-714.
Ruth Litovsky, M.A.
Ruth Litovsky received her B.S. in psychology and M.S. in neuropsychology, both from Washington University in St. Louis. There she investigated development of infants "atrisk". She is currently a Ph. D. candidate in Developmental Psychology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, working on auditory development in infants. Address: Department of Psychology, Tobin Hall, Amherst, MA 01003.