Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
This study was the first of four within a Ph.D. program of research which examined factors that were perceived to be important considerations when designing,, developing,, and delivering pre- and perinatal (PPN) parenting programs for the 21st Century.
This study was the first of four within a Ph.D. program of research which examined factors that were perceived to be important considerations when designing, developing, and delivering pre- and perinatal (PPN) parenting programs for the 21st Century. In this research, 54 mothers and seven fathers (N=61) who had attended a PPN parenting program, completed an online questionnaire that examined program content strengths, gaps, and limitations. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis was undertaken and revealed that “support during pregnancy” was a topic deemed to be important when assessing PPN parenting programs; as consistent with the literature, a lack of support was a commonly reported cause of stress for expecting parents during the time of pregnancy. Whilst some research advocates that existing programs mitigate these concerns, the current research did not concur. The findings add to the literature in PPN psychology by highlighting a wide range of topics identified as being essential content for future PPN parenting programs. As a result, a range of PPN parenting programs can be developed and then measured for effectiveness through pre and post-test randomized clinical trials utilizing large sample sizes and control groups. It is predicted that outcomes may result in sustainable PPN care, positive parenting post birth, needs-based inclusion of fathers, and supported transition for couples into parenthood.
Axness, M., & Strauss, T. (2007). Inviting father’s in: The tender beginnings of attachment in men. Wet Set Gazette, 4, 13. Retrieved from http://www.fatherstobe.org/Inviting%20Fathers%20In%20Axness.pdf
Banyard, V. L., & Graham-Bermann, S. A. (1993). A gender analysis of theories of coping and stress. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17(3), 303-318. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00489.x
Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson, T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: A systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 103(4), 698-709. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000116689.75396.5f
Bernard, H. R. (2000). Social research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bradbury, T. N., & Karney, B. R. (2004). Understanding and altering the longitudinal course of marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4), 862-879. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00059.x
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Brugha, T.S., Sharp, H.M., Cooper, S.A., Weisender, C., Britto, D., Shinkwin, R., … Kirwan, P.H. (1998). The Leicester 500 Project: Social support and the development of postnatal depressive symptoms, a prospective cohort survey. Psychological Medicine, 28(1), 63-9. doi: 10.1017/S0033291797005655
Buyukkayaci Duman, N., & Kocak, C. (2013). The effect of social support on state anxiety levels during pregnancy. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(7), 1153-1164. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2013.41.7.1153
Cameron, R. P., Wells, J. D., & Hobfall, S. E. (1996). Stress, coping support and coping in pregnancy: Taking gender and ethnicity into account. Journal of Health Psychology, 1(2), 195-208. doi: 10.1177/135910539600100204
Cantwell, R., & Smith, S. (2006). Prediction and prevention of perinatal mental illness. Psychiatry, 5(1), 15-21. doi: 10.1383/psyt.2006.5.1.15
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(2), 267-283. doi: 10.2307/351428
Cassel, J. C. (1976). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology, 104(2), 107-123. doi: org/10.1093/ oxfordjournals.aje.a112281Cobb, S. (1976). Presidential address-1976: Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300-314. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/981490
Collins, C. L., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Lobel, M., & Scrimshaw, S. C. (1993). Social support in pregnancy: Psychosocial correlates of birth outcomes and postpartum depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1243-1258. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993
Consonni, E. B., Calderon, I. M. P., Consonni, M., De Conti, M., Prevedel, T. T. S., & Rudge, M. V. C. (2010). A multidisciplinary program of preparation for childbirth and motherhood: Maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes. Reproductive Health, 7, 28-33. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-7-28
Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (2000). When partners become parents. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Da Costa, D., Drista, M., Verreault, N., Balaa, C., Kudzman, J., & Khalife, S. (2010). Sleep problems and depressed mood negatively impact health-related quality of life during pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 13(3), 249-257. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0104-3
Dunkel-Schetter, C., Sagrestano, L.M., Feldman, P., & Killingsworth, C. (1996). Social support and pregnancy. In G. R. Pierc, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 375-412). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Feinberg, M. E., Roettger, M. E., Jones, D. E., Paul, I. M., & Kan, M. L. (2015). Effects of a psychosocial couple-based prevention program on adverse birth outcomes. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(1), 102-111. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1500-5
Feldman, P. J., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Sandman, C. A., & Wadhwa, P. D. (2000). Maternal social support predicts birth weight and fetal growth in human pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 715-725. doi: 10.1097/00006842-200009000-00016
Fugard, A. J. B., & Potts, H. W. W. (2015). Supporting thinking on sample sizes for thematic analyses: A quantitative tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), 669-684. doi: 10.1080/13645579.2015.1005453
George, A., Luz, R. F., De Tychey, C., Thilly, N., & Spitz, E. (2013). Anxiety symptoms and coping strategies in the perinatal period. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13, 233-239. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-233
Giardinelli, L., Innocenti, A., Benni, L., Stefanini, M. C., Lino, G., Lunardi, C., … Faravelli, C. (2012). Depression and anxiety in perinatal period: Prevalence and risk factors in an Italian sample. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 15(1), 21-30. doi: 10.1007/s00737-011-0249-8
Glover, V., & Sutton, C. (2012). Support from the start: Effective programmes in pregnancy. Journal of Children’s Services, 7(1), 8-17. doi: 10.1108/17466661211213634
Glynn, L. M., Dunkel Schetter, C., Wadhwa, P. D., & Sandman, C. A. (2004). Pregnancy affects appraisal of negative life events. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56, 47-52. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(03)00133-8
Gottman, J.M., Driver, J., & Tabares, A. (2002). Building the sound marital house: An empirically-derived couple therapy. In: A. S. Gurman, N. S. & Jacobson (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (3rd ed.)(pp. 569-593). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82. doi: 10.1177/1525822X05279903
Habib, C., & Lancaster, S. (2006). The transition to fatherhood: Identity and bonding in early pregnancy. Fathering, 4(3), 235-253. doi:10.3149/fth.0403.235
Halford, W. K., Petch, J., & Creedy, D. K. (2010). Promoting a positive transition to parenthood: A randomized clinical trial of couple relationship education. Prevention Science, 11, 89-100. doi: 10.1007/s11121-009-0152-y’
Hallgreen, A., Kihlgren, M., Forslin, L., & Norberg, A. (1999). Swedish fathers’ involvement in and experiences of childbirth preparation and childbirth. Midwifery, 15(1), 6-15. doi: 10.1016/S0266-6138(99)90032-3
Harrison, P. A., & Sidebottom, A. C. (2008). Systematic prenatal screening for psychosocial risks. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Undeserved, 19, 258-276. doi: 10.1353/hpv.2008.0003
Heinowitz, J. (1995). Pregnant fathers: Entering parenthood together. San Diego, CA: Parents as Partners Press.
Hildingsson, I., & Haggstrom, T. (1999). Midwives’ lived experiences of being supportive to prospective mothers/parents during pregnancy. Midwifery, 15(2), 82-91. doi:10.1016/S0266-6138(99)90003-7
Hobfall, S. E., Dunahoo, C. L., Ben-Porath, Y., & Monnier, J. (1994). Gender and coping: The dual-axis model of coping. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22(1), 49-82. doi: 10.1007/BF02506817Hoffman, S., & Hatch, M. C, (1996). Stress, social support and pregnancy outcome: A reassessment based on recent reseach. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 10(4), 380-405. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.1996.tb00063.x
Hollins Martin, C. J., & Robb, Y. (2013). Women’s views about the importance of education in preparation for childbirth. Nurse Education in Practice, 13, 512-518. doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2013.02.013
Huizink, A. C., Robles de Medina, P. G., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2002a). Psychological measures of prenatal stress as predictors of infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9), 1078-1085. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200209000-00008
Huizink, A. C., Robles de Medina, P. G., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2002b). Coping in normal pregnancy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(2), 132-140. doi: 10.1207/S15324796ABM2402_10Huizink, A. C., Robles de Medina, P. G., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2003). Stress during pregnancy is associated with developmental outcome in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 810-818. doi: apa.org/journals/dev/21/6/1152.pdf
Hussaini, S. K., Holley, P., & Ritenour, D. (2011). Reducing low birth weight infancy: Assessing the effectiveness of the Health Start Program in Arizona. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(2), 225-233. doi: 10.1007/s10995-009-0556-0
Kalil, K. M., Gruber, J. E., Conley, J., & Sytniac, M. (1993). Social and family pressures on anxiety and stress during pregnancy. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 8(2), 113-118. Retrieved from https://birthpsychology.com/journals/volume-8-issue-2/social-and-family-pressures-anxiety-and-stress-during-pregnancy
Kaye, D. K., Othman, K., Nakimuli, A., Osinde, M. O., Mbainda, S. N., & Kakande, N. (2014). Male involvement during pregnancy and childbirth: Men’s perceptions, practices and experiences during the care for women who developed childbirth complications in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. BioMedCentral Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14, 54-62. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-54
Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1982). Parent-infant bonding (2nd ed.). St. Louis, MI: Mosby Company.
Koontz, J. L. (2009). Stress, social support, health and human-animal bond in single mothers (Unpublished doctoral thesis), Northcentral University, Arizona, USA.
Lancaster, C. A., Gold, K. J., Flynn, H. A., Yoo, H., Marcus, S. M., & Davis, M. M. (2010). Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 202(1), 5-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2009.09.007
Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York, NY: Springer.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
Leigh, B., & Milgrom, J. (2008). Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 8, 24-35. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-8-24
Liamputton, P., & Naksook, C. (2003). Perceptions and experiences of motherhood, health and the husbands role among Thai women in Australia. Midwifery, 19(1), 27-36. doi: 10.1054/midw.2002.0333
Lu, L. (2006). The transition to parenthood: Stress, resources, and gender differences in a Chinese society. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(4), 471–488. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20110Maldonado-Duran, J. M., Lartigue, T., & Feintuch, M. (2000). Perinatal psychiatry: Infant mental health interventions during pregnancy. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 64(3), 317-343. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/ 5ea45be443ac1e94b9b6cb4cf7a2d6a9/ 1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1818298
Mander, R. (2004). Men and maternity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mehl-Madrona, L. E. (2002). Psychosocial variables predict complicated birth. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 17(1), 3-28. Retrieved from https://birthpsychology.com/journals/volume-17-issue-1/psychosocial-variables-predict-complicated-birth
Milgrom, J., Gemmill, A. W., Bilszta, J. L., Hayes, B., Barnett, B., Brooks, J., … Buist, A. (2008). Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: A large prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(1-2), 147-157. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.10.014
Morse, C. A., Buist, A., & Durkin, S. (2000). First-time parenthood: Influences on pre and postnatal adjustment in fathers and mothers. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 21(2), 109-120. doi:10.3109/01674820009075616
Mutale, T, Creed, F., Maresh, M., & Hunt, L. P. (1991). Life events and low birth weight: Analysis by infants preterm and small for gestational age. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 98(2), 166-172. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1991.tb13363.x
Naziri, D., & De Coster, L. (2006). The experience of perinatal parenthood and the construction of paternal identity. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 20(3), 263-280. Retrieved from https://birthpsychology.com/journals/volume-20-issue-3/experience-perinatal-parenthood-and-construction-paternal-identity
Nolan, M. L. (1997). Antenatal education: What next? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1198-1204. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.19970251198.x
Nomaguchi, K. M., & Milkie, M. A. (2003). Costs and rewards of children: The effects of becoming a parent on adults’ lives. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(2), 356-374. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2003.00356.x
O’Donnell, K. J., Bugge Jensen, A., Freeman, L., Khalife, N., O’Connor, T. G., & Glover, V. (2012). Maternal prenatal anxiety and downregulation of placental 11β-HSD2. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(6), 818-826. doi:10.1016/ j.psyneuen.2011.09.014
Pawlby, S., Hay, D., Sharp, D., Waters, C. S., & Pariante, C. M. (2011). Antenatal depression and offspring psychopathology: The influence of childhood maltreatment. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 199(2), 106-112. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.087734
Petch, J., & Halford, W. K. (2008). Psycho-education to enhance couples’ transition to parenthood. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1125-1137. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2008.03.005
Pinquart, M., & Teubert, D. (2010). A meta-analytic study of couple interventions during the transition to parenthood. Family Relations, 59(3), 221-231. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2010.00597.x
Plantin, L., Olukoya, A. A., & Ny, P. (2011). Positive health outcomes of fathers’ involvement in pregnancy and childbirth paternal support: A scope study literature review. Fathering, 9(1), 87-102. doi:10.3149/fth.0901.87
Rodrigo, M. J., Almeida, A., & Reichle, B. (2016). Evidence-based parent education programs: A European perspective. In J. J. Ponzetti, Jr. (Ed.), Evidence-based parenting education.: A global perspective (pp. 85-104). New York: NY, Routledge.
Rosand, G. B., Slinning, K., Eberhard-Gran, M., Roysamb, E., & Tambs, K. (2011). Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy. BMC Public Health, 11, 161-173. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-161
Rubertsson, C., Waldenstrom, U., & Wickberg, B. (2003). Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sample. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21(2), 113-123. doi: 10.1080/0264683031000124073
Sable, M. R., Stockbauer, J., Schramm, W. F., & Land, G. H. (1990). Differentiating the barriers to adequate prenatal care in Missouri, 1987- 88. Public Health Reports, 105(6), 549-555. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2124354
Salihu, H., August, E., Mbah, A., Alio, A., Berry, E., & Aliyu, M. (2014). Impact of a federal healthy start program on feto-infant morbidity associated with absent fathers: A quasi-experimental study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(9), 2054-2060. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1451-x
Salmela-Aro, K., Aunola, K., Saisto, T., Halmesmaki, E., & Nurmi, J. (2006). Couples share similar changes in depressive symptoms and marital satisfaction anticipating the birth of a child. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(5), 781–803. doi: 10.1177/0265407506068263
Schultz, M. S., Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (2006). Promoting healthy beginnings: A randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention to preserve marital quality during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 20-31. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.20. 20
Simbar, M., Nahidi, F., Tehran, F. R., & Ramezankhani, A. (2010). Fathers’ educational needs for perinatal care in urban Iran: A qualitative approach. Journal of Biosocial Science, 42(5), 633-641. doi: 10.1017/s00219320010000167
Sosa, R., Kennell, J., Klaus, M., Robertson, S., & Urrutia, J. (1980). The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 303(11), 597-600. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198009113031101
Trillingsgaard, T., Baucom, K. J. W., Heyman, R. E., & Elklit, A. (2012). Relationship interventions during the transition to parenthood: Issues of timing and efficacy. Family Relations, 61(5), 770-783. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2012.00730.x
Wahn, E., & Nissen, E. (2008). Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and psychosocial conditions of Swedish teenage mothers and their perception of health and social support during pregnancy and childbirth. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36(4), 415-423. doi:10.1177/1403494807085315
World Health Organization (WHO). (2007). Fatherhood and health outcomes in Europe. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO.
Zambrana, R. E., Dunkel-Schetter, C., & Scrimshaw, S. (1991). Factors which influence use of prenatal care in low-income racial-ethnic women in Los Angeles County. Journal of Community Health, 16(5), 283–295. doi: 10.1007/BF01320336