Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
Nicotine Tobacum with its 4,000 additives remains the most injurious addiction to the pregnant woman and her baby. At the discovery of being pregnant 60% of women will quit and 40% will continue throughout the pregnancy. For those 40% tobacco's chemicals will be absorbed into mother's blood, and the baby will be bathed in these toxins. There will be 144,000 spontaneous abortions (approximately 14.6% of all pregnancies), a weight deficit of almost one pound, a loss of 50 I.Q. points in the baby, and affective disorders programmed in the innocent fetus. This article reviews the evidence-based literature regarding findings about tobacco's products and their effect on gestation.
Baker, T.B., et al. (1999). Hooked on a feeling. Sc. News. 155, 395.
Brennan, P.A., Gerkin, E.R., & Mednick, S.A. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 215-219.
Dwyer, T. (1999). SIDS linked to fetal exposure to maternal smoking. Am. J. Epidem. 149: 593-602.
Excite Health (1999). Tobacco use-smoking and smokeless tobacco. Internet, p. 6.
Ferguson, D.M. (1999). Editorial comment: Prenatal smoking and anti-social behavior. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 223-224.
Ferguson, D.M., Woodard, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch. Gen. Psych. 55, 721-727.
Gruenwald, J., Brendler, T., & Jaenicke, C. (1998). PDR [Physicians Desk Reference] Nicotiana Tabacum. New Jersey: Medical Economics Comp.
Hammond, E.G. (1961). Smoking in relation to physical complaints. Arch. Envir. Health, 3, 28-46.
Hanrahan, J.P., Mascola, M., McGreevey, S., Van Yunaicus, H., Tagar, I.B., & Speizer, F.E. (1998). 10-year study of Cotinine as marker for tobacco use. Am. J. P. H.
Harmon, C. (1994). Prenatal fetal monitoring. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.
Hecht, S.S. (1990). Nicotine derived Nitrosaminoketones (NNK), Am. J. P. H., May.
James, D.K., Steer, P.J., Weiner, L.P., & Gonik, B. (Eds.) (1994). High Risk Pregnancy. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.
Kasmel, W.B. (1987). Metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women: Farmington study. Am. Heart J. 114, 413-419.
Kline, J., Stein, Z.A., Susser, M., & Warburton, N. (1977). Smoking: a risk factor for spontaneous abortion. New England Journal of Medicine, 297, 793-796.
Mascola, M.A., Van Vunakis, H., & Tager, LB. (1998). Breast-feeding may be a significant source of infant's exposure to tobacco products. Am. J. P. H. June.
Meyer, M., & Tonascia, R. (1977). Maternal smoking, pregnancy complications, preterm rupture of the bag of waters before 34 weeks and perinatal mortality. Am. J. Ob/G 128, 494.
Millberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am. J. Psych. 153, 1138-1142.
Nathanielsz, P.W. (1999). Life in the womb: the origin of health and disease. Ithaca, New York: Promethean Press.
Rosh, D., Andrew, J., & Kiristal, A. (1990). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy: adiposity, social class and perinatal outcome in Cardiff Wales (1965-1977). Am. J. Perinatology 7, 391-326.
Rotarian (editorial) (1999). Young smokers lighting up in record numbers. The Rotarian. May. p. 12.
Science News (1999). Nicotine addiction curbed by new drug. 155, 11.
Socol, M.L., Mennig, F.A., Mirata, V., & Drusin, M.L. (1982). Maternal smoking causes fetal hypoxia: epidemological evidence. Am. J. ObG 142, 114-218.
Stirrat, G. (1994), Recurrent miscarriage. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.
Thompson, C. (1993-1998). How the anti-smokers lie about neonatal costs and smoking. Smoker's Rights Action Group, Sc. News, Internet site.
Wakschlag, L.S., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Green, S.M., Gordon, R.A., & Leventhal, B.L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of conduct disorders in boys. Arch. Gen. Psych. 54, 670-676.
Williams, M.A., Mittendorf, R., Lisbern, E., Monson, P.R., Schoenbaum, S.C., & Genest, D.R., (1991). Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in relation to placenta previa. Am J. ObG 165, 28-32.
Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D.
Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D. is a retired Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Also a Sexologist/Gestalt Psychotherapist, he currently resides hi Arizona. Correspondence about this article may be sent to 3734 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85716. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.