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1. Kanner, L. 1972. Child Psychiatry, 4th edn. Springfield, Ill,: C.C. Thomas.
2. Bender, L. 1955. Twenty years of clinical research on schizophrenic children, with special reference to those under six years of age. In Emotional Problems of Early Childhood, G. Caplan (ed.) 503-13. New York: Basic Books.
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6. Weiner, J.M. 1977. Psychopharmacology in Childhood and Adolescence. New York: Basic Books.
7. Geller, E., E.R. Ritvo, B.J. Freeman and A. Yuweiler 1982. Preliminary observations on the effect of fenfluramine on blood seratonin and symptoms in three autistic boys. New England Journal of Medicine, 307, 3, 165-9.
9. Rimland, B., E. Callaway, P. Dreyfus, 1978. The effect of high doses of vitamin B 6 on autistic children: A double blind cross-over study. Am J Psychiatry, 135 4, 472-5.
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11. Lovaas, O.I., 1977. The Autistic Child- Language Development Through Behavior Modification New York: Irvington.
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15. Des Lauriers, A.M., 1978. Play, symbols and the development of language. In Autism: a Reappraisal of Concepts and Treatment, M. Rutter and E. Schopler (ed.), 327-36. New York: Plenum Press.
16. Rank, B., 1955. Adaptation of the psychoanalytic technique for the treatment of young children with atypical development. In Emotional Problems of Early Childhood, G. Caplan (ed.), 491-502. New York: Basic Books.
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19. Freeman, B.J. and E.R. Ritvo, 1976. Parents as paraprofessionals. In Autism: Diagnosis, Current Research and Management, E.R. Ritvo, B.J. Freeman, E.M. Ornitz and P.E. Tanguay (eds), 277-85. New York: Spectrum.
20. Hemsley, R., P. Howlin, M. Berger, L. Hersov, D. Holbrook, M. Rutter and W. Yule, 1978. Treating autistic children in a family context. In Autism: a Reappraisal of Concepts and Treatment; M. Rutter and E. Schopler (eds), 379-412. New York: Plenum Press.
21. Kugelmass, N., 1970. The Autistic Child. Springfield Ill.: C.C. Thomas.
22. Lovaas, O.I., 1978. Parents as therapists. In Autism,- a Reappraisal of Concepts and Treatment, M. Rutter and E. Schopler (eds), 369-78. New York: Plenum Press.
23. Schopler, E. and R. Reichler, 1971. Parents as co-therapists of psychotic children. J. Aut Childhd Schizophrenia, 1, 87-102.
24. Schopler, E., 1978. Changing parental involvement in behavioral treatment. In Autism: a Reappraisal of Concepts and Treatment, M. Rutter and E. Schopler (eds), 13-22. New York: Plenum Press.
25. Bettelheim, B. 1967. The Empty Fortress: Infantile Autism and the Birth of Self. New York: Free Press.
26. Victor, G., 1983. The Riddle of Autism. New York: D.C Heath Lexington Books.
27. Hersher, L., J.B. Richmond and A.V. Moore, 1963. Modifiability of the critical period of the development of maternal behavior in sheep and goats. Behavior, 20, 311-20.
28. Bowlby, J., 1969. Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1. Attachment, 346. New York: Basic Books.
29. Ibid. 346.
30. Klaus, M.H. and J.H. Kennell, 1976. Maternal-Infant Bonding. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
31. Goodall, J. In the Shadow of Man. 1971. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
32. Tinbergen, E.A. and N. Tinbergen, 1972. Early Childhood Autism: an Ethohgical Approach. Berlin: Paul Parey.
33. Tinbergen, N, 1974. Ethology and stress diseases. Science, 185, 20-27.
34. Tinbergen, N. and E.A., 1983. Autistic Children-New Hope for a Cure. London: George Allen & Unwin.
35. Chess, S., 1970. Temperament and children at risk. In The Child in his Family. Anthony, E.J. and Koupernik, C. (eds) Vol. 1. New York: Wiley.
36. Winnicott, D.W., 1971. Playing and Reality, 89. New York: Basic Books.
37. Welch, M.G. 1983. Retrieval from autism through mother-child holding therapy. In Autistic Children-New Hope for a Cure. E.A. & N. Tinbergen. 322-336. London. George Allen and Unwin.
38. Prekop, J. 1983. Das festhalten therapie bei kindern mit autismus-syndrom. Teil 1. Fruhforderung Interdiszeplinaer, 2, 54, 64.
39. Prekop, J. Anleitung der therapie durch das festhalten nach Welch ung Tinbergen. Autismus, 15, 32-9.
40. Muler-Trimbusch, G. and J. Prekop. 1983. Das festhalten als therapie bei kindern mit autismus-syndrom. Teil 2. Fruhforderung Interdiszeplinaer, 2, 129-39.
41. Prekop, J. 1984. Zur festhalte-therapie bei autischen kindern. Der Kinderarzt, 15, 798-802, 952-3, 1043-52, 1170-5.
42. Prekop, J., 1984. Festhalten. Behinderte, 7, 6-22.
Martha G. Welch, MD
The author graduated from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and trained in psychiatry at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York. Board certified in psychiatry and neurology, she is currently clinical director of The Mothering Center, 235 Cognewaugh Road, Cos Cob, Connecticut 06807, and author of Holding Time, Simon & Schuster, 1988. Address correspondence & reprint requests to the author.
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