Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
In recent years, prenatal research has demonstrated that fetuses are far more sophisticated than previously thought, findings generally ignored by the medical and psychological establishment in part because the neurological structures traditionally associated with mentation were not believed to be functional. Recent research on memory suggests that consciousness may not be dependent on the central nervous system, or even on the body. Using each major theory of memory and neurological research to examine the prenatal data, this paper concludes that two sources of consciousness are present before and during birth constructing a single subjective experience of self.
Achterberg, J. (1994). Healing images and symbols in nonordinary states of consciousness. Revision, 16(4), 148-156.
Anand, K. J. S. & Hickey, P. R. (1987). Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(21), 1321-1329.
Bache, C. M. (1990). Lifecycles: Reincarnation and the web of life. New York: Paragon.
Bloom, F. E., Lazerson, A. & Hofstadter, L. (1985) Brain, mind, and behavior. New York: Freeman.
Bower, T. G. R. (1977) Primer of infant development. San Francisco: Freeman.
Buchheimer, A. (1987) Memory-Preverbal and verbal. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction (pp. 52-66). New York: Human Sciences.
Carlson, D. B., & LaBarba, R. C. (1979). Maternal emotionality during pregnancy and reproductive outcome: A review of the literature. International Journal of Behavioral Development 2, 343-376.
Catano, J. W., & Catano, V. M. (1987). The infantile amnesia paradigm: Possible effects of stress associated with childbirth. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction (pp. 36-51). New York: Human Sciences.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1981). Birth recall in hypnosis. Birth Psychology Bulletin, 2(2), 1419.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1987). Consciousness at birth: The range of empirical evidence. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction (pp. 69-90). New York: Human Sciences.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988a). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind and personality of your newborn. Los Angeles: Tarcher.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1988b). The mind of the newborn: Increasing evidence of competence. In P. Fedor-Freybergh & M. L. V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn, a comprehensive survey of research and practice (pp. 5-22). Park Ridge, NJ: Parthenon.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1990). The expanding boundaries of memory. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 4(3), 171-189.
Chamberlain, D. B. (1994). The sentient prenate: What every parent should know. Preand Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 9(1), 9-31.
Changeux, J.-P. (1985). Neuronal man. New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1983).
Cheek, D. B. (1974). Sequential head and shoulder movements appearing with age regression in hypnosis to birth. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 16(4), 261-266.
Cheek, D. B. (1975). Maladjustment patterns apparently related to imprinting at birth. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 75-82.
Cheek, D. B. (1986). Prenatal and perinatal imprints: Apparent prenatal consciousness as revealed by hypnosis. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 1(2), 97-110.
Cheek, D. B. (1992). Are telepathy, clairvoyance and "hearing" possible in utero? Suggestive evidence as revealed during hypnotic age-regression studies of prenatal memory. Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal, 7(2), 125-137.
Connolly, J. A., & Cullin, J. H. (1983). Maternal stress and the origins of health status. In J. Call, E. Galenson, & R. Tyson (Eds.), Frontiers of infant psychiatry (pp. 273-281). New York: Basic Books.
Dennett, D. (1991). Consciousness explained. Boston: Little Brown.
Dossey, L. (1989). Where in the world is the mind? Advances, 6(3), 38-47.
Eccles, J. C. (1989). Evolution of the brain: Creation of the self. London: Routledge.
Flavell, J. H. (1985). Cognitive development. (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Fedor-Freybergh, P. G., & Vogel, M. L. V. (Eds.). (1988). Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn, a comprehensive survey of research and practice. Park Ridge, NJ: Parthenon.
Freeman, M. (1987). Is infant learning egocentric or duocentric? Was Piaget wrong? Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 2(1), 25-42.
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed. and Trans.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 23. London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1923).
Gabriel, M. & Gabriel, M. (1992). Voices from the womb. Lower Lake, CA: Asian.
Galluscio, E. H. (1990). Biological Psychology. New York: Macmillan.
Greenough, W. T. (1987). Experience effects on the developing and mature brain: Dendritic branching and synaptogenesis. In N. A. Krasnegor, E. M. Blass, M. A. Hofer & W. P. Smotherman (Eds.), Perinatal development: A psychological perspective (pp. 195221). New York: Academic.
Gregory, R. L. (Ed.) (1987). The Oxford companion to the mind. New York: Oxford University.
Grof, S. (1975). Realms of the human unconscious. New York: Viking.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Grof, S. (1988). Modern consciousness research and human survival. In S. Grof & M. L. Valier, Human survival and conscious evolution (pp. 57-79). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Grof, S. & Bennett, H. Z. (1990). The holotropic mind: The three levels of human consciousness and how they shape our lives. San Francisco: Harper.
Hill, L. M., Platt, L. D. & Manning, F. A. (1979). Immediate effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing and gross body movement. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 135, 689-690.
Janov, A. (1970). The Primal Scream. New York: Delta.
Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York: CowardMcCann.
Josephson, B. & Pallikari-Viras, F. (1991). Biological utilization of quantum nonlocality. Foundations of Physics, 21(2), 197-207.
Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self-problem and process in human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolution (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Laing, R. D. (1982). The voice of experience. New York: Pantheon.
Lieberman, M. (1963). Early developmental stress and later behavior. Science, 141,824.
Luria, A. R. (1976). Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundations (M. Cole, Ed. & Trans; M. Lopez-Morillas, L. Solotaroff, Trans.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Luria, A. R. (1980). Higher cortical functions in man (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
MacLean, P. D. (1973). A triune concept of the brain and behavior. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
MacLean, P. D. (1990). The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. New York: Plenum.
Meltzoff, A. N., & Moore, M. K. (1985). Neonate cognition: Beyond the blooming buzzing confusion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Netherton, M., & Shiffrin, N. (1978). Past lives therapy. New York: Morrow.
Ornstein, R. E. (1991). The evolution of consciousness: Of Darwin, Freud and cranial fire - The origins of the way we think. New York: Prentice Hall.
Pattison, E. M., & Kahan, J. (1986). Personal experience as a conceptual tool for modes of consciousness. In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of states of consciousness (pp. 199-248). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Penfield, W. (1975). The mystery of the mind: A critical study of consciousness and the human brain. Princeton: Princeton University.
Pert, C., Ruff, M., Weber, R. J. & Herkenham, M. (1985). Neuropeptides and their receptors: A psychosomatic network. Journal of Immunology, 35(2), 820s-826s.
Piontelli, A. (1992). From fetus to child: An observational and psychoanalytic study. New York: Routledge.
Pribram, K. H. (1971). Languages of the brain: Experimental paradoxes and principles in neuropsychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Pribram, K. H. (1991). Brain and perception: Hohnomy and structure in figurai processing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Raikov, V. L. (1980). Age regression to infancy by adult subjects in deep hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22(3), 156-163.
Radin, D. & Nelson, R. (1989) Evidence of consciousness-related anomalies in random physical systems. Foundations of physics 19, 1499-1514.
Rank, O. (1929). The trauma of birth. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Restak, R. M. (1984). The brain. New York: Bantam.
Restak, R. M. (1986). The infant mind. New York: Doubleday.
Schindler, S. (1988). A new view of the unborn: Toward a developmental psychology of the prenatal period. In P. Fedor- Freybergh & M. L. V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: Encounter with the unborn, a comprehensive survey of research and practice (pp. 23-34). Park Ridge, NJ: Parthenon.
Siegel, R. K. (1977, October). Hallucinations. Scientific American, 53-78.
Spehlmann, R. (1981). BEG primer. New York: Elsevier.
Sperry, R. W., Zaidel, E., & Zaidel, D. (1979). Interhemispheric relationships: The neocortical commissures; syndromes of hemisphere disconnection. In P. J. Vinken & G. W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology (pp. 273-290). New York: Wiley.
Stevenson, I. (1975-1980). Coses of the reincarnation type (Vols. 1-3). Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Stevenson, I. (1987). Children who remember previous lives: A question of reincarnation. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Tart, C. T. (Ed.) (1972). Altered states of consciousness. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.
Tart, C. T. (1983). States of consciousness. El Cerrito, CA: Psychological Processes.
TenDam, H. (1990). Exploring reincarnation. London: Penguin.
Tomatis, A. A. (1987). Ontogenesis of the faculty of listening. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Preand perinatal psychology: An introduction (pp. 23-35). New York: Human Sciences.
Tronick, E. & Adamson, L. (1980). Babies as people: New findings on our social beginnings. New York: Collier.
Van Husen, J. E. (1988). The development of fears, phobias and restrictive patterns of adaptation following attempted abortions. Pre- and Peri-natal Psychology Journal, 2(3), 179-185.
Veldman, F. (1982). Life welcomed and affirmed. The St. Cloud Visitor, Newspaper of the Catholic Diocese of St. Cloud, Minnesota, Vol. LXXI, Nov. 11.
Verny, T. (Ed.) (1987). Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction. New York: Human Sciences.
Verny, T. & Kelly, J. (1982). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Delacorte.
Wade, J. (1996). Changes of mind: A holonomic theory of the evolution of consciousness. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Walton, G. E., Bower, N. J. A., & Bower, T. G. R. (1992). Recognition of familiar faces by newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 265-269.
Wambach, H. (1981). Life before life. New York: Bantam.
Washburn, M. (1988). The ego and the dynamic ground: A transpersonal theory of human development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Wilber, K. (1977) The spectrum of consciousness. Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House.
Wilber, K. (1995) Sex, ecology, spirituality: The spirit of evolution. Boston: Shambhala.
Jenny Wade, Ph.D.
Jenny Wade, Ph.D. is a Professor at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology and the Associate Editor of this Journal. Send mail to: P. O. Box 571 Ross, CA 94957. Email: email@example.com