Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
This article proposes that watching our words can raise awareness of how the language we choose perpetuates society’s paradigms or empowers women to give birth more naturally and babies to be welcomed more gently.
The majority of practitioners in the field of pre and perinatal psychology would likely agree that in order for society to change prevalent negative beliefs about pregnancy and childbirth there needs to a paradigm shift in the use of negative language as it refers to pregnancy and childbirth. This article proposes that watching our words can raise awareness of how the language we choose perpetuates society’s paradigms or empowers women to give birth more naturally and babies to be welcomed more gently.
Agrawal, P. (2015). Maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States of America. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2015, 93: 135.
Amen, D. G. (1998). Change your brain, change your life. New York, NY: Times Books.
American Pregnancy Association. (2015). www.american pregnancy.org
Arntz, A., & Weertmann, A. (1999). Treatment of childhood memories: Theory and practice. Behavior Research and Therapy, 715-740.
Begley, S. (2007). Train your mind, change your brain: How a new science reveals our extraordinary potential to transform ourselves. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
Belief. Retrieved from https://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belief
Benediction. Retrieved from https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/benediction
Bradley Method® of Natural Childbirth. www.bradleybirth.com
CDC (Centers for Disease Control) (2015). Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. www.cdc.org
Chamberlain, D. (1988). Babies remember birth. Los Angeles, CA: Jeremy P. Tarcher
Chamberlain, D. (1999). Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14(2), 127-144.
David, H.P., Dytrych, Z., Matejeek, Z., & Schuller, V., Eds. (1988). Born Unwanted. New York: Springer Publishing.
DeCasper, A. J., & Fifer, W. P. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science, 208(4448), 1174-1176.
Dekker, R. (2014). Friedman’s curve and failure to progress: A leading case of unplanned C-sections. Retrieved from www.evidencebasedbirth.com
Dossey, L. (1999). Reinventing medicine: Beyond mind-body to a new era of healing. New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco.
Emotional Freedom Technique (n.d.). www.emofree.com
Fox, M. (August 6, 2015). U. S. infant mortality rate stays high, report finds. NBC News. Retrieved from nbcnews.com.
Fridman, R. (2000). The maternal womb: The first musical school for the baby. Retrieved from www.dreamhawk.com
Gao, L., Rabbitt, E. H., Condon, J. C., Renthal, N. E., Johnston, J. M., Mitsche, M. A., Chambon, P., Xu, J., O’Malley, B. W., & Mendelson, C. R. (2015). Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 125(7), 2808-2824. Retrieved from https://www.jci.org/articles/view/78544
Gapp, K., Bohacek, J., Grossmann, J., Brunner, A. M., Manuella, F., Nanni, P., & Mansuy, I. M. (2016). Potential of environmental enrichment to prevent transgenerational effects of paternal trauma. Neuropsychopharmacology. Retrieved from www.nature.com
Ghandi, M. (n.d.) Retrieved from www.goodreads.com
Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., Osterman, M. J. K., Curtin, S. C., & Mathews, T. J. (2015). Births: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 64(12). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Hepper, P. G. (1991). An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 95-107.
Hepper, P. G., & Shahidullah, B. S. (1994). Development of fetal hearing. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71, F81-F87.
Highsmith, S. (2006). Primiparas’ expectations of childbirth: The impact of consciousness (Doctoral Dissertation). Santa Barbara, CA: Santa Barbara Graduate Institute.
Highsmith, S. (2014). The renaissance of birth. Scottsdale, AZ: Inkwell Productions.
Highsmith, S. (2016). Changing the language of childbirth. Midwifery Today, 118, 38-39.
Highsmith, S., Landsberg, C., & Vernallis, M. A. (2004). Babies Know (DVD).
Ingraham, C. (September 29, 2014). Our infant mortality rate is a national embarrassment. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/.../our-infant-mortality-rate-is-
James. D. K., Spencer, C. J., & Stepsis, B. W. (2002). Fetal learning: A prospective randomized controlled study. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 20, 431-438.
Janov, A. (1983). Imprints: The lifelong effects of the birth experience. New York, NY: Coward-McCann.
Kendall-Tackett, K., Cong, Z., & Hale, T. W. (2015). Birth interventions related to lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding and increased risk of postpartum depression in a large sample. Clinical Lactation, 6(3), 87-97.
Laibow, R. (1999). Medical applications of neruobiofeedback. In J. R. Evans & A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to quantitative EEG and neurofeedback (pp. 83-102). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Lake, R. (2009). The business of being born (DVD). Available at www.thebusiness ofbeingborn.com
Lamaze for Parents. www.lamaze.org/
Lind-Kyle, P. (2010). Heal your mind, rewire your brain. Santa Rosa, CA: Energy Psychology Press.
Lipton, B. H. (1995). Early and very early parenting: Maternal emotions and human development. Retrieved from www.birthpsychology.com
Lipton, B. H. (2005). The biology of belief. Santa Rosa, CA: Mountain of Love/Elite Books.
MacDorman, M. F., Hoyert ,D. L., & Mathews, T. J. (2013). Recent declines in infant mortality in the United States, 2005–2011. NCHS Data Brief, 120. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
MacDorman, M. F., Mathews, T. J., & Declercq,E. (2014).Out-of-hospital births in the United States 1990-2012. NCHS Date Brief, 144. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
MacDorman, M. F., Mathews, T. J., Mohangoo, A. D., & Zeitlin, J. (2014). International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010. National Vital Statistics Reports, 63(5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
MacLean, P. D. (2002). The brain’s generation gap: Some human implications. The Social Contract Press, 12(3). Retrieved from www.thesocialcontract.com
Mankad, R. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ high-blood-pressure/expert-answers/white-coat-hypertension/faq-20057792.
March of Dimes. (2016). Fighting premature birth. Retrieved from www.marchofdimes.org/ mission/prematurity-campaign.aspx
McGarey, G. T. (2000). Born to live. Scottsdale, AZ: Inkwell Productions.
McTaggart, L. (2002). The field. New York, NY: Quill.
Molecular mechanisms within fetal lung initiate labor. (June 22, 2015). ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150622162023.htm
Mongan, M. F. (2005). Hypnobirthing: The Marie Mongan method. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications. Inc.
National Women’s Law Center. (2010). Health Care Report Card. Retrieved from www.nwlc.org
Newberg, A., & Waldman, M. R. (2012). Words can change your brain: 12 conversation strategies to build trust, resolve conflict, and increase intimacy. New York, NY: Plume.
Newman, R. B. (2005). Calm birth: New method for conscious childbirth. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.
Obama, B. (1995). Dreams of my father. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
Obstetric care consensus: Safe prevention of the primary Cesarean delivery. (2014/2016).
Osterman, J. K., & Martin, J. A. (2011). Epidural and spinal anesthesia use during labor: 27-state reporting area, 2008. National Vital Statistics Reports, 59(5). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Retrieved from www.acog.org
Odent, M. (2014). When humanity is born by Cesarean at the dawn of a paradigm shift. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 29(1), 3-15.
Odent, M. (Summer 2016). Midwifery tomorrow. Midwifery Today, 118, 16.
Pearce, J. C. (1992). Evolutions’ end: Claiming the potential of our intelligence. San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco.
PSYCH-K. PSYCH-K Centre International. https://www.psych-k.com/
Rapp, R. (1997). Foreword. In Davis-Floyd, R. E., & Sargent, C. F. (Eds.), Childbirth and authoritative knowledge (pp. xi-xii). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Restak, R. (1991). The brain has a mind of its own: Insights from a practicing neurologist. New York, NY: Harmony Books.
Robeznieks, A. (May 6, 2015). U.S. has highest maternal death rate among developed countries. Modern Healthcare. Retrieved from www.modernhealthcare.com
Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
Scaer, R. C. (2001). The body bears the burden: Trauma, dissociation, and disease. New York, NY: The Haworth Medical Press.
Seligman, M. E. (2006). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Siegel, D. J. (2010). Mindsight: The new science of personal transformation. New York, NY: Bantam Books.
Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive. New York, NY: Tarcher/Putnam.
Sine, R. (n.d.). Beyond ‘White coat syndrome’: Fear of doctors and tests can hinder preventive health care. Retrieved from www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/features/beyond-white-coat-syndrome
Single Mother Statistics. https://singlemotherguide.com/single-mother-statistics/
Tapas Acupressure Technique (n.d.). www.tatlife.com
Tew, M. (1990). Safer childbirth: A critical history of maternity care. Great Britain: Chapman & Hall.
The World Factbook: Infant Mortality Rate. (2016-17). Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library /publications/ the-world-factbook/index.html
Thought Field Therapy (n.d.). www.tfttapping.com
Uzelac, S. (2016). Changing beliefs and attitudes about birth in preconceptive young women. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 30(4), 256-261.
Van de Carr, F. R. (1997). While you are expecting: Your own personal classroom. Atlanta, GA: Humanics Trade.
Verny, T. R. (2014). What cells remember: Toward a unified field theory of memory. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 29(1), 16-29.
Verny, T. R., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Pre-parenting: Nurturing your child from conception. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Verny, T. R., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow’s baby: The art and science of parenting from conception through infancy. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
WHO statement on caesarean section rates: Executive summary. (2016). World Health Organization. Retrieved from www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publication
To speak with a representative about our products and services or for technology inquiries, please call 1-720-490-5612.