Warning messageThis content is filtered. APPPAH membership is required for full access to journal articles.
Abstract: The cosmologies of many cultures use gender as symbolic for polar attributes of human consciousness. The author presents a developmental neurobiological theory to account for the non-arbitrary way in which this attribution comes about, and applies the theory to an explanation of the symbolic use of gender in Tibetan tantric Buddhism. He concludes by discussing the implications of the theory for understanding the effects of positive and negative pre- and perinatal experiences upon the development of gender identity.
Barlow, H.B., & Mollon, JJD., (eds) (1982) The senses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blakemore, C. (1974) Developmental factors in the formation of feature extracting neurons. In RO. Schmitt & RG. Worden (eds.), The neurosciences third study program. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Borges, J.L. (1961). Antologia Personal. Buenos Aires: Sur.
Brazelton, T.B., & Als, H. (1979). Four early stages in the development of mother-infant interaction. The Psychosomatic Study of the Child 34, 349-369.
Brazelton, T.B., Koslowski, B., & Tronick, E. (1977). Neonatal behavior among urban Zambians and Americans. In S. Chess & A. Thomas (eds). Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development. New York: Brunner/Mazel Publishers.
Campbell, J. (1949). The hero with a thousand faces. New York: The World Publishing Co.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1980). Reliability of birth memories: Evidence from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Paper presented at 23rd annual meeting of American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Minneapolis.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1982). Symposium commentary on Lloyd de Mause's Fetal Origins of History. Journal of Psychohistory Ì0(2):222-229.
Chamberlain, D.B. (1983). Consciousness at birth. San Diego, CA: Chamberlain Communication
Cheek, DJB. (1974). Sequential head and shoulder movements appearing with age regression in hypnosis to birth. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 26(4):261-266.
Count, E.W. (1973), Being and becoming human. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Crook J-H. (1980). The evolution of human consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
d'Aquili, E.G. (1982). Senses of reality in science and religion: A neuroepistemological erspective. Zygon 17 (4): 361-384
d'Aquili, E.G., Laughlin. CD. & McManus, J. (1979). The spectrum of ritual. New York: Columbia University Press.
De Mause, L. (1981). The fetal origins of history. The Journal of Psychohistory 9(l):l-89.
Eliade, M. (1958). Birth and rebirth. New York: Harper
Eliade, M. (1964). Shamanism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Evans-Wintz, WY (1960). The Tibetan book of the dead. New York,: Galaxy.
Evans-Wintz, WY (1969) Tibet's great yogi Milarepa. London: Oxford University Press.
Fries, M.E. (1977). Longitudinal study: Prenatal period to parenthood. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 25, 115-140.
Gellhorn, E. (1967). Principles ofautonomic-somatic integration. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Gibson, E.J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Globus, G. et al. (1976). Consciousness and the brain. New York: Plenum.
Greenley, A.M. (1975). The sociology of the paranormal. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Grof, S. (1979) LSD Psychotherapy. Pomona, CA: Hunter House.
Gruber, H.E., «& Voneche, J. J. (1977). The essential Piaget. New York: Basic Books.
Harner, M. (1980). The way of the shaman. New York: Bantam Books.
Haug, H. (1972). Stereological methods in the analysis of neuronal parameters in the central nervous system. Journal of Microscopy 95(1): 165-180.
Hertz, R. (1909). Death and the right hand (the 1960 edition). Aberdeen: Cohen and West.
Hof er, M.A. (1974). The role of early experience in the development of autonomic regulation. In diCara, L. (ed), Limbic and autonomic nervous systems research. New York: Plenum.
James, W (1962). The principles of psychology . New York: Dover.
Janov, A. (1972). The primal revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Jung, CG. (1955). Mysterum coniunctionis. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Kirk, V. (1983). Neuropsychology of language, reading and spelling. New York Academic Press.
Klopf, A.H. (1982). The hedonistic neuron: A theory of memory, learning and intelligence. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Co.
Laing, R.D. (1982). The voice of experience. London: Allen Lane.
Larroche, J. C. (1966). The development of the central nervous system during intrauterine life. In F. Falkner (ed.), 257-276, Human Development, Part ?. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Laughlin CD., & d'Aquüi, E.G. (1974). Biogenetic Structuralism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Laughlin, CD., McManus, J., Rubinstein, RA., & Shearer, J. (1985). The ritual control of experience. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 7.
Laughlin CD., McManus, J., & Shearer, J. (1984) Dreams, trance and visions: What a transpersonal anthropology might look like. The Journal of Transpersonal Anthropology, 7, 141-159.
Laughlin, CD., McManus, J., & Stephens, CD. (1981). A model of brain and symbol. Semiotica 33(3/4), 211-236.
Laughlin, CD., McManus, J., & Webber, M. (1985) Neurognosis, indviduation and Tibetan arising yoga practice. Journal of Transpersonal Anthropology, S(1-2), 91-106.
Laughlin, CD., & Stephens, CD. (1980) Symbolism, canalization, and P-structure, in M.L. Foster and S. Brandis (eds), Symbol as sense. New York, Academic Press.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1968). The elementary structures of kinship. Boston: Beacon.
Lévi-Strauss, C. (1978). Myth and meaning. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Liedloff, J. (1975) The continuum concept. London: Future Publications.
Liley, A. W, (1972). The fetus as a personality. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 6, 99-105.
MacCormack, C. P, & Strathern, M. (1980). Nature, culture and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964). The primacy of perception. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968). The visible and the invisible. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Needham R. (1973). Right and left: Essays on dual symbolic classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Neumann, E. (1963). The great mother. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Nishitani, K. (1982). Religion and nothingness. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Paul, RA. (1982). The Tibetan symbolic world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Piaget, J. (1971), Biology and knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Piaget, J. (1977). The development of thought. New York: Viking Press.
Piaget, J. (1980). Adaptation and intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ploye, P.M. (1973). Does prenatal mental life exist? International Journal of PsychoAnalysis, 54, 241-246.
Powers, WT (1973). Behavior: Control of perception. Chicago: Aldine.
Pribram, KH. (1971). Languages of the brain. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Pribram, KH (1977) Observations on the organization of studies of mind, brain, and behavior. In N. Zinbert (ed), Alternate states of consciousness. New York: The Free Press.
Raikov, V.L. (1980). Age regression to infancy by adult subjects in deep hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22(3), 156-163.
Raikov, V.L. (1982). Hypnotic age regression to the neonatal period: Comparisons with role playing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30(2), 108-116.
Richmond, J.B., & Lustman, S.L. (1955). Autonomic function in the neonate: Implications for psychosomatic theory. Psychosomatic Medicine 17, 269.
Schell, L.M. (1981). Environmental noise and human prenatal growth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 56, 63-70.
Schutz, A., & Luckmann, T. (1973). Structures of the life-world, Volume I. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sherif, M. (1977) Crisis in social psychology: Some remarks towards breaking through the crisis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 3, 368-382.
Silber, H. (1971). Hidden symbolism of alchemy and the occult arts. New York: Dover (orig. ed. 1917).
Snellgrove, D., & Richardson, H.E. (1968). A cultural history of Tibet. New York: Frederick Praeger.
Sontag, L.W. (1941) The significance of fetal environmental differences. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 42, 996-1003.
Stave, U. (1978) Maturation, adaptation, and tolerance. In U. Stave, (ed), Perinatal Physiology. New York: Plenum Medical Book Co.
Stein, R.A (1972). Tibetan civilization. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Stone, L.J., Smith, H., & Murphy, L. B. (eds) (1974) The competent infant. New York: Basic Books.
Sugarman, M. (1977) Perinatal Influences on Maternal-Infant Attachment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 48:407-421.
Suyuki, D.T. (1967) An interpretation of Zen experience. In CA. Moore, (ed.), The Japanese mind. Honolulu: East- West Center Press.
Thompson, A.H. (1935). Bede: His life, times, and writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tillich, P. (1963). Systematic theology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Turkewitz, G., & Kenny, PA. (1982). limitations on input as a basis for neural organization and perceptual development: A preliminary theoretical statement. Developmental Psychobiology, 15(4), 357-368.
Turner, V (1974). Dramas, fields, and metaphors. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Verny, T (1982). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell.
Webber, M., & Laughlin, CD. (1979). The mechanism of symbolic penetration. Department of Sociology-Anthropology Working Paper, 79-8, Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University Press.
Webber, M., Stephens, CD, & Laughlin, CD. (1983). Masks: A re-examination, In R. Crumrine & M. Halpin (eds). The power of symbols. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Wenger, MA. (1941). The measurement of individual differences in autonomic balance. Psychosomatic Medicine 3, 427.