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The birthing experience may be perceived as a traumatic in women who present with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet a woman's view can change if she gains knowledge about the birth experience. Narrative debriefing, for example, is a source of validation, through the telling and listening of birth narratives. Further, by reading books and articles, taking mental notes, and comparing outcomes women can reevaluate their own experiences and their perceptions change as a result. Women may require repetitive debriefing to facilitate healing from birth-related trauma.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-TVTR). 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Bailham, D. & Joseph, S. (2003). Post-traumatic stress following childbirth: A review of the emerging literature and directions for research and practice. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 8(2), 159-168.
Barraclough, R. (2000). After pains: Birth stories don't always have happy endings. New Zealand Treasures Magazine. September issue. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http:// www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/treasuresart.pdf.
Beck, C.T. (2004). Birth trauma: In the eye of the beholder. Nursing Research, 53(1), 28-35.
Beck, C.T. (2004). Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: The aftermath. Nursing Research, 53(4), 216-224.
Birth Trauma Association (n.d.). Post Natal Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.birthtraumaassociation.org.uk/publications/Post_ Natal_PTSD.pdf.
Callister, L.C. (2004). Making meaning: Women's birth narratives. JOGNN, 33(4), 508-518.
Crompton, J. (2000). Post-traumatic stress disorder and childbirth. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/jrcrompton%20tabs.pdf.
Donley, J. (n.d.). Another article from Joan Donley. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http:// www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/jdonley.pdf.
Farley, C. & Widmann, S. (1998). The value of birth stories. Retrieved June 7, 2006 from http://www. icea. org/0901. pdf.
Gamble, J., Greedy, D., Moyle, W., Webster, J., McAllister, M., & Dickson, P. (2005). Effectiveness of a counseling intervention after a traumatic childbirth: A randomized controlled trial. Birth, 32(1), 11-19.
Hartmann, K., Viswanathan, M., Palmieri, R., Gartlehner, G., Thorp, J., & Lohr, K.N. (2005). Outcomes of routine episiotomy: A systematic review. JAMA, 293(17), 2141-2148.
McKenzie-McHarg, K. (2004). Commentary: Traumatic birth: Understanding predictors, triggers, and counseling process is essential to treatment. Birth, 37(3), 219-221.
Simkin, P. (1998). The day you'll never forget-the day you give birth to your first child. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/simpkin.pdf.
Swalm, D. (n.d.). Tabs-Childbirth and emotional trauma: Why it's important to talk talk talk. Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/ important2talk.pdf.
Waldenstrom, U. (2004). Why do some women change their opinion about childbirth over time? Birth, 37(2), 102-107.
White, G. (n.d.). Childbirth and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.tabs.org.nz/pdfdocs/ childbirthdevptsd.pdf.
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