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This paper is an attempt at an historical survey of psychotherapies that have successfully accessed pre- and perinatal memories. A variety of ways in which psychotherapists work with material that is felt by the therapist or the client to be linked to pre- or perinatal life are discussed, and certain desirable criteria for the practice of humanistic and rational pre- and perinatal psychotherapy are suggested. It is proposed that the systematic study of material that emerges in the course of psychotherapy is facilitated by identifying it with a specific stage of pre- or perinatal development.
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2. Winnicott, D.W. (1958). Collected papers: Through paediatrics to psychoanalysis. New York, Basic Books, pp. 177-178.
3. Spielrein, Sabina, (1912). Destruction as a cause of coming into being, Jahrbuch f
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