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Birth Imagery in Sandplay©
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Jeane Rhodes

This article, after introducing the sandplay© method developed by Dora Kalff, explores the images seen in the work of sandplay© clients that may depict birth and/or prenatal experiences. In contrast to other modalities that employ sand trays, the Kalfian method relies on the power of the medium; sand, water, a collection of miniatures, and a tray of specific dimensions, to evoke a process within the client that is not dependent upon interpretation for healing. Case study examples are used to amplify some of the symbols that portray natalistic themes.

Born after Loss: The Invisible Child in Adulthood
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Joann M O'Leary, Author: Cecilie Gaziano, Author: Clare Thorwick

Early childhood literature suggests children born after the loss of an infant sibling are at risk for attachment disorders, yet there continues to be a lack of intervention available to support the parents of these children during their pregnancies. The stories of these adult subsequent children give meaning to why attachment disorders can result and provide a strong case for intervention around infant loss and the subsequent pregnancy. Contrary to other studies on this topic, these participants summarize healing and hope.

Clinical Story of a 6-Year-Old Boy's Eating Phobia: An Integrated Approach Utilizing Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology with Energy Psychology's Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) in a Surrogate Nonlocal Application
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Wendy Anne McCarty

This article presents a clinical story of a one-session therapeutic intervention for a young boy's lifelong eating phobia as an example of an integrated therapeutic approach utilizing prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) understanding of early experiences as potential origins for life patterns and an energy psychology healing modality intervention-emotional freedom technique (EFT). Key principles of the Integrated Model and corresponding elements of an integrated therapeutic approach are presented. The session took place without the child present.

Primiparas' Expectations of Childbirth: The Impact of Consciousness
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Susan Highsmith

This qualitative study was designed to explore the childbirth expectations of primiparas' (women pregnant for the first time) in light of current scientific understandings of consciousness. In-depth before-and-after-birth interviews were conducted. Explicit expectations were compared with implicit expectations portrayed through drawings of an ideal birth (a projective technique) rendered during the first interview. Participants experienced outcomes that differed from their conscious expectations.

The Long Term Consequences of How We Are Born
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

This article is an updated review of the literature on the long term consequences of birth. Current literature reviewed includes the topics of autism, juvenile criminality, drug addiction, anorexia nervosa, asthma, exposure of antibiotics during pregnancy, the behavioural effects of hormones, and caesarean sections and is offered from a primal health perspective. The article closes with recommendations the profound changes that need to be made if this vision of childbirth is to be brought to a broader audience.

Women's Perceptions of the Birthing Experience: An Ever-Changing Phenomenon
Publication Date: 01/2006
Author(s): Author: Teresa Lear

The birthing experience may be perceived as a traumatic in women who present with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet a woman's view can change if she gains knowledge about the birth experience. Narrative debriefing, for example, is a source of validation, through the telling and listening of birth narratives. Further, by reading books and articles, taking mental notes, and comparing outcomes women can reevaluate their own experiences and their perceptions change as a result. Women may require repetitive debriefing to facilitate healing from birth-related trauma.

Investigation by Questionnaire Regarding Fetal/Infant Memory in the Womb and/or at Birth
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Akira Ikegawa

The purpose of this study is to clarify the possession rate of fetal/infant memory in the womb and/or at birth and to validate its characteristic. A total of 1620 answered questionnaires of the 3601 distributed were returned, giving an overall recovery rate of 45.0%. The possession rates of womb and birth memory were 33.0% and 20.7%, respectively. Parents, too, responded with regard to their own memory from birth, and 1.1% appeared possessing such memory.

New Mothers' Experiences of Agency During Prenatal and Delivery Care: Clinical Practice, Communication and Embodiment
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Rory Coughlan

Health research suggests that personal agency plays a key role in health experiences. In this qualitative analysis of the experiences of 40 recent mothers accessing healthcare services from physicians and midwives, we found that agency is linked to democratic relationships that support women's access to and discussion of relevant health information. While most participants wanted to participate more actively in their care, problematic physician-patient communication hampered their ability to exercise personal agency.

Obesity from a Primal Health Research Perspective
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

Obesity has become an epidemic in the United States, threatening the health of millions of Americans. President Clinton has been a major supporter of addressing the problem of obesity, especially in children. To date this condition has been challenging to both understand its origins and to treat. This article reviews the pre- and perinatal literature and related medical literature and suggests that intrauterine undernutrition (famine-like) conditions during the first trimester shows a promising area for further research to explore childhood and adult obesity.

Seasonality of Birth: Is There a Link Between Primal Health Research and Astrology?
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

Health from a pre- and perinatal (primal period) perspective has been mostly a theoretical construct. However, in the last 20 years, published studies have confirmed the effects of environmental factors occurring pre- and perinatally and the development of a number of diseases. These indicators point to the fact that we should continue exploring links between the date of birth (or the date of conception) and a great variety of human health conditions, such as, diseases, abnormalities, personality traits, as well as states of health.

The Neurological Impact of Preterm and Very Preterm Birth and Influence of IVF Pregnancies on Developmental Outcomes: A Literature Review and Case Study
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Mari Fullmer

This article explores the influence on brain development, as well as the neurological and behavioral outcomes, of the preterm and very preterm infant. It also briefly covers the influence of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), multiple births, gestational age, and birth weight on development as well as giving a more in depth review of literature that evaluates the impact of preterm birth and very preterm birth on brain development and neurological and behavioral outcomes.

The Trend Toward Night Doulas: Exploring the Original Vision of Postpartum Doula Care
Publication Date: 12/2005
Author(s): Author: Vicky York

KEY WORDS: Doula, postpartum care, breastfeeding, parenting.

A Holistic Approach to Neonatal Resuscitation
Publication Date: 10/2005
Author(s): Author: Kathryn Landon-Malone

The emerging science of pre and perinatal psychology and developmental neuroscience suggests newborns are conscious and capable of feeling and establishing memory at birth. The science points to the potential for imprinting traumatic events at birth which may then become the foundation for future mal adaptive behavior patterns and mental illness. Pre and perinatal thought leaders are calling for new models of obstetric and neonatal care that acknowledge the consciousness and suffering of babies at the time of the trauma.

Being Pregnant: A Qualitative Study of Women's Lived Experience of Pregnancy
Publication Date: 10/2005
Author(s): Author: Toni M Armstrong

Few studies of pregnancy have been designed to include the pregnant woman's perspective. This qualitative study was conducted to explore women's perspectives of their experience of pregnancy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 pregnant women (24-39 years). The analysis revealed six major themes: support during pregnancy; experience of pregnancy; finding information; changing values; model of care; and being responsible. Results suggest that women's experience of pregnancy may be enhanced offering guidance and enabling access to multiple sources of support.

Genesis of Sexual Orientation: From Plato to Dorner
Publication Date: 10/2005
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

This article examines the genesis of sexual preference. Since human beings as a species are unique in that they have a sexual orientation toward their own gender (homosexuality) as well as the opposite sex (heterosexuality), how or where this preference begins is of interest. This paper examines the research and focuses on how and why some fetuses lack male hormones at the end of pregnancy, which along with stress responses may trigger a high level of activity in the mother's adrenal glands impacting the developing child's later sexual orientation.

Prenatal and Perinatal Psychotherapy with Adults: An Integrative Model for Empirical Testing
Publication Date: 10/2005
Author(s): Author: Bobbi Jo Lyman

This article identifies an issue within the discipline of prenatal and perinatal (PPN) psychology, namely that the field currently consists of individual practitioners' modalities without empirical validation around treatment efficacy. The goal undertaken was to integrate the PPN literature related to adult psychotherapy into a coherent and practical model to serve as a guide for students and professionals that could also be empirically tested.

The Factor Structure of the Cambridge Worry Scale in Early Pregnancy
Publication Date: 10/2005
Author(s): Author: Julie Jomeen

The current study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in early pregnancy to determine the potential clinical usefulness of the sub-scales that comprise this measure. The CWS was administered to 129 women during early pregnancy at the antenatal booking clinic. Factor analysis revealed support for the socio-medical, health, socio-economic and relationships subscale domains. The CWS sub-scales were observed to assess dimensions distinct to those of anxiety and depression.

Birth: Hospital or Home? That is the Question
Publication Date: 05/2005
Author(s): Author: Robert J Oliver

Reflections of a practicing obstetrician on the question of hospital vs. home birth, specifically addressing the issue of increased interventions, in ways known to be traumatic to babies, that are typical of many hospital births. This increased intervention has created increasing dissatisfaction in mothers of the birth experience. The attempt is made to simplify the arguments that support home birth when compared to the hospital management of labor and birth.

KEY WORDS: homebirth, hospital birth, midwife care.

Healing and Birth
Publication Date: 05/2005
Author(s): Author: Franz Renggli

Franz Renggli, Ph.D. presents an in-depth discussion of his work as a psychoanalyst and body psychotherapist in Basel, Switzerland. This discussion is enhanced by the inclusion of several case studies.

KEY WORDS: body psychotherapy, birth psychology.

Maternal Drinking Patterns and Drug Use Increase Impact of Terrorism Among Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care
Publication Date: 05/2005
Author(s): Author: Marilyn W Lewis

This is the first known study of the psychosocial impact of terrorism among pregnant women. Ninety-nine women attending prenatal care in New York City were interviewed after September 11, 2001 and classified by drinking patterns. Current drinkers with a history of alcohol dependence perceived less social support following the disaster compared to other women. History of illegal drug use prior to maternal awareness of pregnancy was related to a weaker maternal-fetal bond. Greater exposure to trauma predicted stronger subjective effects and more depressive symptoms.

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