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Ordered by Publication Date

Maternal Psychological Characteristics and Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Author: Robert L Goldenberg

Scores on six psychosocial questionnaires were compared to the risk of delivering an IUGR infant. In the second trimester, scales for stress, anxiety, social support, mastery, self esteem, and depression were prospectively administered to 1500 indigent women. In univariate analyses, significant relationships were found between IUGR and a poor score for mastery, stress, anxiety and self-esteem. The results were additive in that the more poor the scores, the higher the rate of IUGR.

Prenatal Stress and Handedness Among Offspring
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Author: Lee Ellis

Stressful experiences recalled by 270 mothers beginning a year prior to pregnancy through to the end of pregnancy were compared for right, left, and mixed handed offspring of both sexes. For the male offspring, mothers of left handers recalled significantly more severe stress throughout pregnancy than mothers of either right or mixed handers. For the female offspring, no significant differences were found.

Proto-Rhythms: Basis for the Birth of Musical Intelligence and Language Expression
Publication Date: 12/1991
Author(s): Author: Ruth Fridman

This paper refers to the role of proto-rhythms in future musical acquisition as basis for the birth of musical intelligence and language expression. It also analyzes the role of rhythm in the very early vocal expressions of newborn babies and of the relation with expressions uttered between their 22nd and 24th months of age. The work presents transcriptions in musical symbols from the 1st cry up to the expressions of the year of life. Proto-rhythms are described and analyzed as well as their importance in back-feeding them.

Fantasy State During Pregnancy: A Psychoanalytic Account
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Laurie N Sherwen

Fantasy during pregnancy is a very common occurrence, especially during the third trimester. It is often disturbing to the woman, and may provide insights into client concerns of clinical relevance to the health care professional who delivers care to this population. This paper reports on a preliminary classification schema for third trimester fantasies, based on a survey of fantasies reported by pregnant women during this time period. Clinical examples of counseling situations using the schema to identify pregnant clients' problems and concerns are discussed.

Infant Outcomes of a Prenatal Stimulation Pilot Study
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Brent Logan

An evaluation of prelearning theory - which maintains that normative brain cell death prior to birth can be beneficially influenced by sensory imprinting - began in December 1986, providing progressive sonoral stimuli for a two-month fetus. These sequenced signals were adapted from the maternal blood pulse, as recorded by hydrophone in utero, thus conforming to the prenate's natural sonic environment; three hours of daily application lasted seven months, administered from a portable audiocassette player with transducers positioned on the abdomen.

Muscular Armoring in Labor: An Orgonomic (Bioenergetic) Perspective
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Richard A Blasband

Chronic armoring is a physiologic contraction of the musculature that begins in childhood and serves to protect the organism against inner feelings and threats from the outer world. By blocking the free flow of life energy through the longitudinal axis of the body, armoring inhibits spontaneous pulsation of organ systems and the organism as a whole. In childbirth armoring prevents easy surrender to the process of labor.

Report on Interviews with 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 year old children: Birth Memories
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Jeane Rhodes

Report on Research Project: Interviews with 2 ½ to 3 ½ Year Old Children Regarding Their Memories of Birth and the Pre-Natal Period

The Emotional Reactions of Parents to Their Premature Baby
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Michael T Hynan

Parents have a confusing variety of emotional reactions to the stress of a high-risk birth. Terror, grief, impotence, and anger are common feelings for these parents. Some of these reactions bring families closer together; at other times these emotions pull spouses apart. It is essential to recognize that even though these emotions are very troubling, they are normal experiences during a life-and-death crisis.

The Moon Hung on a Navelstring from the Dark: The Metaphor of Mother As Placenta and Its Effect on Parenting Concepts
Publication Date: 10/1991
Author(s): Author: Joan Raphael-Leff

A psychosocial analysis explores some fantasies underpinning sexual asymmetry with emphasis on female childrearing and denial of maternal subjectivity. It is suggested that whereas in the past gender-role distinction between the sexes was rooted in procreativity, recent technological innovations have liberalized definitions in the West, offering greater choice and self-determination as we now can discriminate between sexuality, reproduction and childrearing.

Classification Rates and Relative Risk Factors for Perinatal Events Predicting Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in Children
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Ervin S Batchelor Jr

Perinatal factors were used to predict childhood emotional/behavioral disturbance using a discriminant analysis. A cross validation procedure was employed showing that 20 of 26 factors studied contributed to the separation between groups at clinical levels of accuracy. Frequencies, percentages, and relative risk factors were calculated for each perinatal factor and for the discriminant function. Results were used to argue to a multivariate approach in the examination of a relationship between perinatal events and development of emotional/behavioral disorders in children and adolescents.

Effects of Perinatal Exposure to Opioid Agonists and Antagonists on Central Nervous System Development
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Ian S Zagon

The perinatal opioid syndrome has been recognized for over a century. Examination of this phenomena has revealed no pathognomonic symptoms, but rather a constellation of somatic and neurobiological deficits that may continue into adulthood. Research in this area has found that exogenous opioids such as heroin and methadone interact with opioid receptors and influence development. Moreover, a fundamental and important observation shows that endogenous opioid peptides, the counterpart to exogenous opioids, normally modulate developmental events.

Maternal-Infant Bonding and Pediatric Asthma: An Initial Investigation
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Antonio Madrid

This study examined the frequency of disruptions in maternal-infant bonding within a pediatric asthma population. Two groups, 30 mothers of asthmatic children and 30 mothers of well children, were interviewed through the Maternal Infant Bonding Survey (M.I.B.S.) to study the frequency of non-bonding events in the birth histories of their children. Raters determined that 86% of the asthmatic children were non-bonded as compared to 26% of the well children.

Perinatal Depression in Four Women Reared by Borderline Mothers
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Michael D Trout

As we become more familiar with the continuum of disturbances that are understood as Borderline Personality Disorder, we have come to know more about how the illness affects-and is affected by-other family members. Much less clear is our understanding of what can be expected in the life course of a person reared by a borderline parent. This paper offers a glimpse of that world, by way of reporting on the extreme anxiety and depression experienced by four women-each of whom appears to have been the child of a borderline mother-upon the birth of their babies.

Shared Power: The Essence of Humanized Childbirth
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Susan McKay

This paper discusses the implications of a research project that was reported elsewhere. Here the issue of empowerment and disempowerment of women during hospital births is discussed. The author takes the view that birthing technology can be used to both ends, but is usually used in disempowering ways.

Support for Bereaved Families of Multiple Births
Publication Date: 05/1991
Author(s): Author: Elizabeth Bryan

The loss experienced by parents following the perinatal death of a twin is often underestimated by other people and the particular problems are rarely appreciated. A Bereavement Clinic for multiple birth families provides the opportunity to discuss concerns such as incomplete information, lack of a memorial, anger, the fantasy twin, the response to the surviving child and zygosity determination. An informal lunch allows families to meet and share their experiences with other bereaved families.

Changing Childbirth Customs
Publication Date: 03/1991
Author(s): Author: Beverley Chalmers

The meaning and usefulness of the concept of cross-cultural childbirth is questioned in this paper. Intracultural variations within Southern African Black women's experiences of childbirth are utilized to explore the validity of the cross-cultural concept. The question of universality or diversity of birth experiences is discussed. Possible universal elements of birth are suggested while factors determining variations in these experiences are proposed.

Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Psychoactive Drugs
Publication Date: 03/1991
Author(s): Author: Carol K Kellogg

Exposure to anxiolytic drugs during the third week of gestation in the rat leaves a lasting imprint on the organism. Functionally, animals exposed prenatally to diazepam (Valium) demonstrate alterations in arousal-attention and stress-related functions. Neural systems underlying these functions are also influenced by the early exposure. The effects of early diazepam exposure are related to the interaction of the drug in utero with specific binding sites in the fetal brain.

The Expression of Pre- and Perinatal Experience in Cultural Phenomena
Publication Date: 03/1991
Author(s): Author: Ludwig Janus

Prenatal psychology is able to shed light on various experiences which appear to be creative mechanisms for coping with difficult situations of transition in life but which on closer inspection also seem to be re-enactments of pre-birth feelings and of birth itself. The symbolism of regression to the womb and of rebirth can be found in various cultural phenomena such as puberty rites, shamanism, the myths of great heroes, fairy tales, sacrificial rituals and initiation fights.

The Role of Kinesthesia in Pre- and Perinatal Bonding
Publication Date: 03/1991
Author(s): Author: Frank W Hatch

At birth mother and infant are in a common state of "kinesthesia." This constitutes a "kinesthetic bond." It results from the motion tracking between mother and child throughout the pregnancy. They feel each others' motion by means of touch through the uterine wall. If the sensory information they use to define their relationship is disrupted by physical separation after birth, before other sensory modes of relating are established, the relationship may suffer.

Fetal Education: A Lesson from the Past
Publication Date: 12/1990
Author(s): Author: G Justus Hofmeyr

During the 1960's, abdominal decompression during pregnancy was thought, on the basis of poorly controlled studies, to confer exceptional intelligence on the fetus. A carefully controlled study subsequently showed that this was not the case. Mothers who had received decompression treatment tended to give manifestly unrealistic accounts of their children's abilities, and their children differed temperamentally from the control group.

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