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The Impact of Developmental Trauma on Human Evolution
Publication Date: 09/2010
Author(s): Author: Janae B Weinhold, Author: Barry K Weinhold

This article presents an expanded paradigm for understanding the pervasive impact of subtle parent-child interactions that cause experiences of shock, trauma, and stress during the first three years of life. Drawn from quantitative, qualitative, applied evidence-based practice, case formulation research methods, and a comprehensive review of related research, it uses the term “developmental trauma” to describe these early experiences. The article also places shock, trauma, and stress on a continuum and charts their impact on the development of individuals, couples, and families.

Childbirth in the Land of Utopia
Publication Date: 05/2010
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

In this creative look into the future, the author offers a scenario in which giving birth without medical intervention is deemed to be ideal. The scene starts in the year 2010 with an interdisciplinary conference to discuss the need to control the rate of caesarean birth. The effects of the Utopian attitude are evaluated in 2031. Interestingly, outsiders had been at the root of the miraculous solutions unanimously adopted in this country. This essay presents a thought-provoking approach that will have you creating your own version of Utopia.

Circumcision: A Brief Overview
Publication Date: 05/2010
Author(s): Author: Kimberly R Mascaro

Currently, the rate of circumcision is declining in the United States (The Circumcision Reference Library, n.d.). Estimates vary from one in six men circumcised worldwide (Dunsmuir and Gordon, 1999) to one in three according to a 2008 report from the World Health Organization. This paper explores the historical roots of circumcision and where the procedure stands today, from a practical and an ethical perspective. The current debate over whether to circumcise or not to circumcise young males is explored through the lens of a prenatal and perinatal psychology student.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Maternal and Child Health
Publication Date: 05/2010
Author(s): Author: Peggy Phillips

This paper presents an overview of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the duration of pregnancy, incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth and development, including birth weight, neurocognitive and visual development in the infant, and postpartum depression in the mother. A brief introduction to the role of nutrition on the outcome of pregnancy provides a context for the review of the literature which follows. Much of the research is preliminary and includes epidemiological, animal, and human studies.

Overcoming Somatic and Psychological Difficulties: New Experiences from an Integrated Linkage of Obstetrics and Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 05/2010
Author(s): Author: Rupert Linder

In recent years it has been shown that an integrated linkage of gynecology, obstetrics, and psychotherapy resulted in an astoundingly low rate of premature births among the pregnant women cared for. Many physical problems in pregnancy should be regarded within the entirety of physical and emotional processes.

Maternity Social Support
Publication Date: 03/2010
Author(s): Author: Francesca Dabrassi, Author: Antonio Imbasciati, Author: Anna Maria Della Vedova

Most literature suggests the importance of social support during the pregnancy. This research utilized the Spearman's rho coefficient, which was calculated between the Maternity Social Support Scale (MSSS) score and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score, as well as Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) score. The results confirm that during the pregnancy a high social support level is associated with a low depression level and a high social support level is associated with a high prenatal attachment level.

Nurture of the Brain, Nutritional & Emotional, in the Context of Evolution and the Lifecycle
Publication Date: 03/2010
Author(s): Author: Simon H House

Controlled trials reveal that, from before conception, nutrient deficits and toxins affect sperm, ovum, and maternal stores, lastingly impairing a child's health and abilities. Deficits, toxins, and stress can inhibit structure and function, and be linked to autism or reduced self-control, possibly with violent tendencies. From the beginning, epigenetic settings are mostly set early for directing development according to current environment. Many are operative in the brain.

The Best and Worst Time of My Life: The Lived Experience and Meaning of Pregnancy in Women with Mild to Moderate Depression
Publication Date: 03/2010
Author(s): Author: Erin McKillop, Author: Stephanie Martin, Author: Angela Bowen, Author: Nazeem Muhajarine

The notion that pregnancy can, for some women, be a time of unhappiness and depression has only recently been recognized in media and by the general public. Although researchers and clinicians have begun to study antenatal depression with regards to prevalence, associated factors, and treatment approaches and outcomes, less is known about women?s lived experience of this phenomenon. A hermeneutic phenomenological study was conducted with six pregnant women who scored 10, 11, or 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, indicating mild to moderate symptoms of depression.

Differentiating Subtypes of Postnatal Depression Based on a Cluster Analysis of Maternal Depressive Cognitions
Publication Date: 12/2009
Author(s): Author: Nicole F. Church, Author: Debra A. Dunstan, Author: Donald W. Hine, Author: Anthony D.G. Marks

Based on the analysis of cognitive style, this study demonstrated that women experiencing postnatal depression (PND) fall into two categories: (a) those with a general cognitive vulnerability to depression and for whom childbirth is a non-specific stressor; and, (b) those whose depression is directly related to the stressful demands of motherhood.

Mary the Dawn: Ancient European Symbols of Fertility and Pregnancy for Pedagogical Purposes
Publication Date: 12/2009
Author(s): Author: Fr. Walter R. Taylor

In this paper, I will trace Ancient European Symbols of Pregnancy and Fertility from pre-history to early Christian times. Whether ancient female images represented goddesses or not, is not under discussion here. I will explore the possibility that symbols of pregnancy and fertility take on a purpose beyond self-expression, art, or worship and suggest the plausibility of pedagogical purposes in a pre-literate world. By including symbols, I also hope to show how some the roots of our modern alphabet go back to pre-history, and speak of the sacred sciences of birth.

Pregnancy as a Rite of Passage: Liminality, Rituals & Communitas
Publication Date: 12/2009
Author(s): Author: Denise Cete-Arsenault, Author: Davya Brody, Author: Mary-Therese Dombeck

Pregnancy, a major life transition, significantly impacts aspects of a woman?s physical, psychological and social self. Theoretical perspectives of pregnancy are compared in terms of their utility. Using the theoretical frameworks of anthropologists van Gennep and Turner pregnancy is viewed as liminal, a space between social structures. Passage through pregnancy to parenthood is explored in its social context as a rite of passage. Viewing pregnancy and birth as a liminal phase provides a valuable framework for understanding normative and non-normative pregnancy experiences.

Pregnancy, Childbirth and Postpartum Experiences of Israeli Women in the Negev
Publication Date: 10/2009
Author(s): Author: Dorit Segal-Engelchin, Author: Orly Sarid, Author: Julie Cwikel

This study of 302 Israeli women was a secondary analysis conducted to: (1) examine the associations between negative pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum experiences; (2) determine whether exposure to childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence and fertility problems are related to reproductive experiences and (3) identify among these variables potential predictors of negative childbirth experiences and postpartum depression (PPD). Pregnancy-related fears increased and prior fertility problems decreased the likelihood of negative childbirth experiences.

Symptoms of Postpartum PTSD and Expressive Writing: A Prospective Study
Publication Date: 10/2009
Author(s): Author: Paola Di Blasio, Author: Chiara Ionio, Author: Emanuala Confalonieri

Research studies on post-partum PTSD have highlighted that the experience of childbirth can be traumatic in itself because it often involves fear, pain, impotence and non-expressed negative emotions. This study hypothesized that mental processing post-partum emotions, through Pennekaber?s expressive writing (EW) method, can reduce short- and long-term posttraumatic symptoms. The sample was of 242 women (mean age=31.5; SD=4) of whom 120 performed the EW-task and 122 were not asked to write.

Transition to Parenthood Among Drug Abusing Mothers: Stressors, Supports, Coping and Mental Health
Publication Date: 10/2009
Author(s): Author: Ritva Helena Belt, Author: Raija-Leena Punam ki, Author: Marjaterttu Pajulo, Author: Tiina Posa, Author: Tuula Tamminen

We examined the impact of drug abuse on prenatal resources (social support and coping strategies) and mental health problems (depressiveness, pregnancy distress and hostility), and analyzed whether they would differently predict postpartum mental health between drug abusing and non-abusing women. Drug abusing (n=44) and comparison (n=50) women participated in the second or third trimester (T1), and reported depressive and anxiety symptoms at four (T2) and 12 (T3) months postpartum.

A History of the Theory of Prenatal Attachment
Publication Date: 05/2009
Author(s): Author: Anna R. Brandon, Author: Sandra Pitts, Author: Wayne H. Denton, Author: Allen Stringer, Author: H. M. Evans

John Bowlby?s theory of human attachment has become widely applied across disciplines and across the stages of human development. This discussion explores the evolution of an application of Bowlby?s theory to the experience of pregnancy, from both maternal and paternal perspectives.

Factors Contributing to Delay in Racial and Ethnic Minority Women Seeking Early Prenatal Care
Publication Date: 05/2009
Author(s): Author: Agnes M. Richardson, Author: Warren A. Rhodes

This study surveyed females who accessed prenatal care at an urban health center to determine perceptions of barriers to early initiation of services. We hypothesized distrust of healthcare professionals would result in delayed utilization. Results indicated that both minority and non-minority patients distrust health care professionals who have strong anti-minority bias and discriminate on the basis of race.

Prenatal Aspects in Alzheimer's Disease
Publication Date: 05/2009
Author(s): Author: Rien Verdult

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized by a global mental deterioration. Although the etiology is not yet clear, more evidence shows that a prenatal link is possible. Memory disturbances are central in AD and eventually lead to a loss of autonomy and identity. Anxiety becomes the basic feeling of AD patients, as well as experiences of mourning, loss of control, and loss of contact. In the manifest stage retrogenesis is triggered, that is, patients reverse develop and start to re-live their past.

Life: How Experience in the Womb Can Affect Our Lives Forever
Publication Date: 03/2009
Author(s): Author: Arthur Janov

ABSTRACT:?Until we re-direct our focus earlier, we shall never solve these human problems.? Dr. Arthur Janov explains this position in his article and describes how the psychophysiological effects of events that occur during the first nine months influence the lifespan. Clearly focusing on the womb is a shift in his Primal theory. This change proposes the importance of healing prenatal imprints to more clearly see their widespread cumulative and enduring effects. ?It means that how the birth trauma is played out, and reacted to, depends on earlier life circumstances?womb-life.?

The Masculinisation of the Birth Environment
Publication Date: 03/2009
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

This article offers a historical account of the changes in birth that the author reflects on after decades as a practicing obstetrician. In preliterate and pre-agricultural societies, women used to isolate themselves to give birth. It seems that at that phase of the history of humanity the only person who could be around was the mother of the parturient, an ant, or another experienced mother. Then, for thousands of years, childbirth has been more and more socialized and culturally controlled. During this long period the birth environment remained mostly feminine.

Autism and Anorexia Nervosa: Two Facets of the Same Disease?
Publication Date: 12/2008
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

The discussion as to the primacy of genetic vs. environmental factors has shifted with the concept of ?gene expression? being shown as increasing our understanding of the origin of pathological conditions and personality traits. This means the acceptance of gene expression occurring during the primal period as well. The questions are now focused on the timing and the critical periods for genes-environment interaction. Autism and anorexia nervosa, two conditions that are to a great extent determined during the perinatal period.