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The Black Hole: Exploring the Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dysfunction and Deprivation with their Roots in the Pre and Perinatal Period
Publication Date: 12/2008
Author(s): Author: Shirley A Ward

The relationship between traumatic events from conception to birth and the Schizoid Personality Disorder, Dysfunction and Deprivation is explored. From extensive experiential work with clients, based on the work of the British psychiatrist, Dr. Frank Lake, and her own personal experiences, the author discusses the very painful schizoid personality dysfunctions and deprivations relating to traumas of great severity in the first trimester of life. Loss of bonding and fear of intimacy are explored, along with dissociation and boundaries, seen as learned behaviour in the womb.

The Possible Prenatal Origins of Morbid Obesity
Publication Date: 12/2008
Author(s): Author: Althea M Hayton

The rapidly developing science of pre-birth psychology is casting a new light on some old problems. One such is morbid obesity, some aspects of which can possibly be explained in the light of prenatal theory. This article sets out the hypothesis that firstly, obesity may represent a self-destructive personal choice. Secondly, there may be a psychological reason why the possibly fatal consequences of that choice are largely ignored by the obese person. Thirdly, the choice and its consequences comprise a style of eating behaviour that seems to re-construct a particular pre-birth experience.

Dispelling the Disempowering Birth Vocabulary
Publication Date: 10/2008
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

This article presents a very basic challenge with regard to the way in which human beings enter into this world. This is not just a challenge to the medical model, but to ?natural childbirth? methods as well. It addresses the fundamentals of language that have guided our core concepts of sexuality and birth. It is not limited to the English language, but points out the roots of words from many languages that have contributed to world-wide attitudes and concepts.

Prenatal Attachment and Postnatal Infant Sleep
Publication Date: 10/2008
Author(s): Author: Petra Spletzer, Author: Maeve O'Beirne, Author: Allen Bishop

This study examined the relationship between maternal prenatal attachment and postnatal infant sleep. Ninety first-time pregnant mothers, between 35 and 40 gestational weeks, completed the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (M?ller, 1989), which consists of 21 items and assesses the mother?s prenatal attachment to her fetus. After the birth of their infant, the mothers charted their infant?s sleep for three consecutive 24-hour periods when the infant was 1 week and 3 months old, using the Sleep/Activity Record (Barnard, 1999).

Role of Maternal Reflective Ability for Substance Abusing Mothers
Publication Date: 10/2008
Author(s): Author: Marjukka Pajulo, Author: Nancy Suchman, Author: Mirjam Kalland, Author: Jari Sinkkonen, Author: Hans Helenius, Author: Linda Mayes

This paper reports on a study designed to explore factors contributing to better outcomes for substance abusing pregnant and parenting women in residential treatment, and, as a result, contribute to better outcomes for their children. The setting was three live-in units focusing in supporting both abstinence from substances and mother-child relationship. Participants were 18 mother-baby pairs in treatment from perinatal phase to 4 months of child's age.

Sharing Space: A New Model of the Woman's body and Potential in Childbirth
Publication Date: 10/2008
Author(s): Author: Robert Bruce Newman

Two great systems of human development, Tibetan Vajrayana Buddhism and the Toltec lineages of Mexico, offer inspiring models of the human body, with remarkable implications for childbirth today. Shifts in the medical paradigm encourage the development of mind/body and energy/body models for OB practice.

The Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment: An Empirical Analysis
Publication Date: 10/2008
Author(s): Author: Marilyn W Lewis

An Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment was empirically studied to analyze contributions of fetal characteristics and psychoanalytic and ecological components. Ninety-nine women during their third trimester were administered questionnaires about themselves, their environment, and their fetus to identify predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Whether the woman knew the fetus? gender and fetal age were the best predictors of the strength of maternal-fetal attachment.

Birth of the Living Gods? Exploring the Pre-and Perinatal Aspects of Religious Development
Publication Date: 05/2008
Author(s): Author: Helen Holmes

Rizzuto and Freud consider that the origins of God representations can be traced to early parental relations, but Rizzuto postulates that Freud underestimates the ?complexities of this derivation, especially the role of the mother? (Wulff, 1997, pp. 343-344). To what extent is Rizzuto right in agreeing with Freud? Is there any evidence to support how God can be represented in pre and perinatal terms, within a psychodynamic framework?

Collective Birth Trauma in the Ancient Biblical History of Israel
Publication Date: 05/2008
Author(s): Author: Aiton Birnbaum

This article attempts to apply Rank?s concept of individual birth trauma to the history of ancient Israel as depicted in the Bible. The birth of the Jewish people as reviewed in the relevant Biblical texts demonstrates recurrent and significant traumata at individual, family, and large-scale collective levels, indicating that the early Israelites did experience collective birth trauma. Ramifications of this for a greater understanding of the Bible and of Jewish history and cultural practices are explored.

Recreating Ourselves: Ground-Breaking Research for a New Humanity
Publication Date: 05/2008
Author(s): Author: Phil Johncock

The intention of this paper is to introduce interdisciplinary research challenging the foundations of self-growth fields and leading to the birth of a new humanity. The paper briefly summarizes relevant literature and introduces new adult verbal and nonverbal typologies with origins in four key preverbal developmental stages (conception, prenatal, birth and bonding). Interdisciplinary contributing fields included are embryology, neurobiology, attachment theory, body-centered psychotherapy, somatic psychology, and prenatal and perinatal psychology.

New Criteria to Evaluate the Practices of Midwifery and Obstetrics
Publication Date: 03/2008
Author(s): Author: Michel Odent

A position on the necessity of evaluating both obstretrics and midwifery is offered to utilize what strengths each discipline brings birthing mothers. But beyond this, the effects of birth on subsequent events, for example breastfeeding in the short term, and the potential for sweeping effects in the long term for the culture are included. To summarize, the accumulation of research in a number of areas points to the conclusion that interfering with pre- or perinatal development can have future effects currently not envisioned.

Subjective Evaluation of Perinatal Care Regulation
Publication Date: 03/2008
Author(s): Author: Christine Durif-Bruckert, Author: Sandra David, Author: Jean-Pierre Durif-Varembont

In France the policy of regionalization and organization of perinatal care is governed by a Decree issued in 1998, the objective of which is to improve prevention of premature births and perinatal risks. Within this context, forty-nine health professionals were interviewed by means of a qualitative questionnaire designed to evaluate implementation of the Decree. The present report is primarily an analysis of the mechanisms and psychosocial issues of over-medicalization of birth.

The Mother-Baby Prenatal Group: Nurturing Reflective Functioning in a Methadone-Maintenance Clinic
Publication Date: 03/2008
Author(s): Author: Connie Jenkins, Author: Anne Williams

This paper describes the rationale and curriculum for an attachment-based intervention for pregnant women who attend an outpatient methadone-maintenance clinic. Maternal drug use has been associated with negative prenatal internal representations and problems in mutual regulation after birth. Maternal attachment status during pregnancy has been correlated with subsequent security of infant attachment. Recent studies suggest maternal reflective functioning as a key mediator in attachment.

Prenatal and Perinatal Trauma Case Formulation: Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of the Origins of Repetitive Behaviors in Adults
Publication Date: 01/2008
Author(s): Author: Bobbi Jo Lyman

Historically, the practice of treating adults for prenatal and perinatal trauma has consisted of individual practitioners' modalities that lacked empirical validation around treatment specificity or efficacy. Yet, their commitment to understanding the origins of behaviors has provided hope for clients challenged with life-long problems. This paper describes, based on a review ofthe literature, a first step towards integrating prenatal and perinatal psychology theory and practice knowledge with current case formulation and evidence-based practice models.

Cesarean Birth Stories
Publication Date: 12/2007
Author(s): Author: Lorna D Milliken

The purpose of this phenomenological study is to better understand the impact and implications of a cesarean birth on later adult behavior patterns. A written survey was designed using Dr. William R. Emerson?s questionnaire The Evaluation of Obstetrical Trauma: A Questionnaire (1997). Forty statements were developed to represent behaviors believed to relate to birth via cesarean section. Four cesarean-born women participated in the study. Each completed the questionnaire and was interviewed by telephone about the statements she thought best applied to her experience.

From "Bad" Ritual to "Good" Ritual: Transmutations of Childbearing Trauma in Holotropic Ritual
Publication Date: 12/2007
Author(s): Author: Gregg Lahood

In this article a tentative and provisional theory is advanced on the treatment of birth-giving trauma. ?Birth-giving-trauma? here refers to women (and men) psychologically, physically or emotionally traumatized during birth-giving. In the first part of this article I outline anthropologist Robbie Davis-Floyd?s argument that Western medicalized birthing can be constructed as a ?modern? rite of passage which can negatively imprint disempowering images into women?s minds, reinforce messages of inferiority, and traumatise the birth-giving mothers.

The Skin as a Psychic Organ: The Use of Infant Massage as a Psychotherapeutic Tool in Infant-Parent Psychotherapy
Publication Date: 12/2007
Author(s): Author: Paulette Lucier

This paper explores the use of touch, particularly infant-massage in infant-parent psychotherapy and the ways in which clinicians can utilize this intervention to strengthen infant-parent attachment. Touch as a taboo in psychotherapy, and the paradigmatic shifts that are occurring to allow for a reconsideration of the value of touch in psychotherapy is considered. Theories on touch and development from a depth-oriented perspective are presented, including related concepts such as: psychic skin, skin ego, and Winnicott?s holding environment or handling.

A Journey of Love: The Influence of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology on Parent-Child Bonding
Publication Date: 10/2007
Author(s): Author: Christie Barrack

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth.

Prenatal and Perinatal Memories in Preverbal Children: Clinical Observations Using Videotape Examination
Publication Date: 10/2007
Author(s): Author: Tara Maria A. Blasco

This research study examined the hypothesis that preverbal children are capable of implicitly and explicitly registering their prenatal and perinatal experiences and of subsequently communicating these experiences through their behavior. It asked the question, Can trained observers accurately identify preverbal children?s prenatal and perinatal experiences based on the children?s behavior in a therapeutic setting? The study utilized mixed-method analysis, and accuracy was assessed according to the degree of correspondence between the observers?

The Alchemical Dance of Mother and Infant: A Blueprint for Co-Creative Dyadic Unity During the Prenatal and Perinatal Period
Publication Date: 10/2007
Author(s): Author: Becky Engler-Hicks

This theoretical dissertation considered the biological and psychologicalimportance of the dance between mother and infant from conception through the bonding period. It proposed a unifying dance metaphor of pre- and perinatal motherinfant alchemical dance to provide a psychological term describing their first organizing co-creative dynamics. The process of alchemical dance is postulated to be Nature?s blueprint for the initial creational unfolding of human development.

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