Restaging Fetal Traumas in War and Social Violence
1. Lloyd deMause, "The Gulf War as a Mental Disorder." The Journal of Psychohistory 19 (1991): 1-23.
2. Miriam Robbins Dexter, Whence the Goddesses: A Source Book. New York: Pergamon Press, 1990; Paul Friedrich, The Meaning of Aphrodite. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
3. James A. Aho, Religious Mythology and the Art of War: Comparative Religious Symbolisms of Military Violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981; Wolfgang Lederer, The Fear of Women. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968, p. 58.
4. Use Kirk, "Images of Amazons: Marriage and Matriarchy." In Sharon Macdonald, Pat Holden and Shirley Ardener, Eds., Images of Women in Peace and War. Houndmills: Macmillan Education, 1987, pp. 27-39
5. Burr Cartwright Brundage, The Fifth Sun: Aztec Gods, Aztec World. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979, p. 201; Margaret Ehrenberg, Women in Prehistory. London: British Museum Publications, 1989, p. 163.
6. Lloyd deMause, Reagan's America. New York: Creative Roots, 1984; Lloyd deMause, "The Gulf War as a Mental Disorder."
7. Joan Haslep, Marie Antoinette. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987. Lynn Hunt, "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette: Political Pornography and the Problem of the Feminine in the French Revolution" and Vivian Cameron, "Political Exposures: Sexuality and Caricature in the French Revolution." In Lynn Hunt, Ed., Eroticism and the Body Politic. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991, pp. 109-130; Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989, pp. 203-227; Terry Castle, "Marrie Antoinette Obsession." Representations 38 (1992): 1-38; Madelyn Gutwirth, The Twilight of the Goddesses. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1992, pp. 136-200.
8. Lynn Hunt, "The Many Bodies of Marie Antoinette," pp. 122-3; Simon Schama, Citizens, p. 796.
9. Richard Grenier, "Killer Bimbos." Commentary, September 1991; "Kiss Kiss Slash Slash." Newsweek, March 23, 1992.
10. New York Post, June 16, 1986, p. 4.
11. James A. Aho, Religious Mythology and the Art of War: Comparative Religious Symbolisms of Military Violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981, pp. 21-23.
12. John Bierhorst, Ed. The Hungry Woman: Myths and legends of the Aztecs. New York: William Morrow, 1984, p. 10.
13. Brace Lincoln, Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991, p. 13.
14. Sidney Halpern, "The Mother-killer." The Psychoanalytic Review 52(1965): 73.
15. Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psyehohistory, pp. 90-102, 244-332.
16. Nancy Huston, "The Matrix of War: Mothers and Heroes." In Susan Rubin Suleiman, The Female Body in Western Culture: Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 133.
17. Ralph H. Lutz, Fall of the German Empire 1914-1918: Documents of the German Revolution. Vol. I. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 193-2, p. 13.
18. Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, Eds. Documents on Nazism, 1919-1945. London: Jonathan Cape, 1974, p. 37; Robert Wistrich, Hitler's Apocalypse: Jews and the Nazi Legacy. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985, p. 134.
19. For further examples or the fetal drama, see Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psyehohistory, pp. 261-282.
20. Sigmund Freud, "The Interpretation of Dreams," Standard Edition, Vol. 5. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959, p. 400.
21. Otto Rank, The Trauma of Birth. New York: Richard Brunner, 1952; Otoo Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero and Other Writings. New York: Random House, 1932.
22. In Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psycho-analysis. New York: Basic Books, 1958, pp. 174-193.
23. Ibid, p. 175.
24. David W. Winnicott, Human Nature. London: Free Association Books, 1988, p. 149.
25. Collected Papers, pp. 177-8.
26. Ibid, pp. 249-250
27. Nandor Fodor, The Search for the Beloved: A Clinical Investigation of the Trauma of Birth and Prenatal Condition. New Hyde Park, N.Y: University Books, 1949; Francis J. Mott; The Universal Design of Creation. Edenbridge: Mark Beech, 1964; Arnaldo Rascovsky, El Psiquismo Fetal. Buenos Aires: Editorial Paidos, 1977; Stanislav Grof, Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. New York: Viking Press, 1975; Stanislav Grof, Beyond the Brain: Birth, Death and Transcendence in Psychotherapy. Albany: State University of New York, 1985; Arthur Janov, The Primal Scream: Primal Therapy-The Cure for Neurosis. New York: G. P. Putnam' s Sons, 1970; Thomas R. Verny and John Kelley, The Secret Life of the Unborn Child. New York: Summit Books, 1981; Thomas R. Verny, Ed., Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987; Peter Fedor-Freybergh and M. L. Vanessa Vogel, Eds., Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine: Encounter With the Unborn. Camforth: the Parthenon Publishing Group, 1988; Ludwig Janus, Wie die Seele entsteht: unser psychisches Leben vor und nach der Geburt. Hamburg: Huffman und Campe, 1991.
28. Calvin S. Hall, "Prenatal and Birth Experiences in Dreams." Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1(1967): 157-74.
29. K Mark Sossin, "Pre- and Postnatal Repercussions of Handicapping Conditions Upon the Narcissistic Line of Development." Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 7 (1993): 197.
30. G. Engel et al, "Monica: Infant-feeding Behavior of a Mother Gastric Fistula-fed as an Infant: A Thirty-Year Longitudinal Study of Enduring Effects." In E. Anthony and G. Pollack; Eds. Parental Influences in Health and Disease. Boston: Little, Brown, 1985, pp. 30-89.
31. William Niederland, The Role of the Ego in the Recovery of Early Memories." Psychoanalytic Quarterly 34(1965): 568.
32. Lynda Share, If Someone Speaks, It Gets Lighter: Dreams and the Reconstruction of Infant Trauma. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press, 1994, p. 191-196.
33. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine and Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal. For excellent recent bibliographies, see M. Maiwald and L. Janus, "Development, Behavior and Psychic Experience in the Prenatal Period and the Consequences for Life History: A Bibliographic Survey." International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5 (1993): 451-485 and M. Maiwald, "Development, Behavior and Psychic Experience in the Prenatal Period and the Consequences for Life History: A Bibliographic Survey." Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatla Psych, and Med. 6 (1994): Suppl. 1-48. More extensive bibliography of pioneering fetal psychologists can be found in Lloyd deMause, Foundations of Psychohistory, "The Fetal Origins of History," pp. 244-332.
34. Maggie Scarf, Body, Mind, Behavior. New York: Dell Publishing, 1976, pp. 23-40; Robert C. Goodlin, Care of the Fetus. New York: Masson Publishing, 1979, p. 192; Thomas R. Verny, Pre- and Perinatal Psychology: An Introduction. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1987, p. 25.
35. K. J. S. Anand and P. R. Hickey, "Pain and Its Effects in the Human Neonate and Fetus." The New England Journal of Medicine, 317 (1987): 1322.
36. Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American, June 1994, pp. 50-57.
37. Bessel A. van der KoIk, "The Trauma Spectrum: The Interaction of Biological and Social Events in the Genesis of the Trauma Response." Journal of Traumatic Stress 1 (1988): 273-290; Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1994, pp. 173-183.
38. Robert M. Bradley and Charlotte M. Mistretta, "Fetal Sensory Receptors." Physiological Reviews 55 (1975): 358; Tryphena Humphrey, "Function of the Nervous System During Prenatal Life," in Uwe Stave; Ed. Physiology of the Perinatal Period. Vol. 2. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970, pp. 754-89.
39. Robert Goodlin, Care of the Fetus, p. 1.
40. A. W. Liley, "The Foetus as Personality." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 6 (1972): 99-105; Alessandra Piontelli, From Fetus to Child: An Observational and Psychoanalytic Study. London: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992; A. Ianniruberto and E. Tajani, "Ultrasonographic Study of Fetal Movements." Seminars in Perinatology 5 (1981): 175-181; T. B. Brazelton and B. G. Cramer, The Earliest Relationship. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1990.
41. W. E. Rayburn, "Monitoring Fetal Body Movement." Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 3 (1987): 889-911.
42. P. H. Wolff, The Causes, Control and Organization of Behavior in the Neonate. (Psychological Issues Monographs No. 17). New York: International Universities Press, 1966, p. 22-23; Arthur Efron, "The Sexual Body: An Interdisciplinary Perspective." The Journal of Mind and Behavior. 6 (1985): 118-121.
43. Jeanette M Soby, Prenatal Exposure to Drugs I Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine / Polydrug Effects. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1994.
44. M. Lieberman, "Early Development of Stress and Later Behavior." Science 1141 (1963): 824.
45. Bibliographic references can be found in Christopher Norwood, At Highest Risk: Environmental Hazards to Young and Unborn Children. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980 and Child at Risk: A Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Quebec: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1980.
46. R. E. Myers, "Production of Fetal Asphyxia by Maternal Psychological Stress." Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science 12(1977): 51-62.
47. T. F. Anders and C. H. Zeanah. "Early Infant Development From a Biological Point of View." In J. D. Call, E. Galenson and R. L. Tyson, Eds., Frontiers of Infant Psychiatry, Vol. II. New York: Basic Books, 1984; J. A. Connolly and J. H. Cullen, "Maternal Stress and the Origins of Health Status." Ibid, Vol. I, 1983; B. R. H. van den Bergh, "The Influence of Maternal Emotions During Pregnancy on Fetal and Neonatal Behavior." Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 5 (1990): 119-130; Thomas Blum, Ed. Prenatal Perception, learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993.
48. Chairat Panthuraamphorn, "Prenatal Infant Stimulation Program," in Blum, Ed., Prenatal Perception, pp. 187-220.
49. Thomas R. Verny, "Womb Ecology/World Ecology." Talk delivered at 2nd World Congress for Prenatal Education, Athens, Greece, May 14, 1994.
50. Lester Sontag, "Implications of Fetal Behavior and Environment for Adult Personalities." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 134 (1965): 782-6.
51. Robert Goodlin, Care of the Fetus, p. 10; Dennis H. Stott, testimony, in Senate of Canada: Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977, "Childhood Experiences of Criminal Behavior," Issue No. 1, Second Proceeding, Nov. 24, 1977.
52. Child At Risk: A Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. Hull: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1980, p. 16.
53. Lorraine Roth Herrenkohl, "The Anxiety-Prone Personality: Effects of Prenatal Stress on the Infant." In Roy J. Mathew, Ed. The Biology of Anxiety. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1982, pp. 51-86; A. J. Ward, "Prenatal stress and childhood psychopathology." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 22 (1991): 97-110; Lars Billing, et al, "The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioral Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine During Fetal Life." Child Abuse & Neglect 18 (1994): 3-9; Sarnoff A. Mednick et al, Eds., Fetal Neural Development and Adult Schizophrenia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991; David B. Chamberlain, "Prenatal Intelligence." In Thomas Blum, Ed. Prenatal Perception, Learning and Bonding. Berlin: Leonardo Publishers, 1993, pp. 14-21; A. J. Ward, "Prenatal Stress and Childhood Psychopathology." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 22 (1991): 97-110; Adrian Raine, The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behavior as a Clinical Disorder. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993.
54. Elaine Morgan, The Descent of the Child: Human Evolution from a New Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 78.
55. Adrian Raine, Patricia Brennan, Sarnoff A. Mednick, "Birth Complications Combined With Early Maternal Rejection at Age 1 Year Predispose to Violent Crime at Age 18 Years." Archives of General Psychiatry 51(1994): 984-988; Henry P. David, Zilenek Dybrich, Zilenek Matejcek and Vratislav Schuller, Born Unwanted: Developmental Effects of Denied Abortion. New York: Springer, Publications, 1988.
56. Gerald M. Edelman, The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books, 1989, p. 44; Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain." Scientific American, June 1994, pp. 50-57.
57. Lyle S. Joffe, et al, "Biobehavioral Antecedents in the Development of InfantMother Attachment." In Martin Reite and Tiffany Field, Eds., The Psychobiology of Attachment and Separation. New York: Academic Press, 1985, p. 334.
58. Bessel A. van der Kolk, and Jose Saporta, The Biological Response to Psychic Trauma: Mechanisms and Treatment of Intrusion and Numbing." Anxiety Research 4(1991): 199-212.
59. Jan Volavka, Neurobiology of Violence. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1995; M. J. P. Kruesi, "Cruelty to Animals and CSF 5-HIAA." Psychiatry Research 28 (1989): 115-116; Bessel A. van der KoIk, Trauma Spectrum: The Interaction of Biological and Social Events in the Genesis of the Trauma Response." Journal of Traumatic Stress 1 (1988): 273-290.
60. Bertil Jacobson, "Perinatal Origin of Eventual Self-Destructive Behavior." Preand Peri-Natal Psychology 2 (1988): 227-241.
61. Ibid, p. 240; Jude Roedding, "Birth Trauma and Suicide: A Study of the Relationship Between Near-Death Experiences at Birth and Later Suicidal Behavior." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology Journal 6 (1991): 145-169; L. SaIk et al, "Relationship of maternal and perinatal conditions to eventual adolescent suicide. Lancet 1 (1985): 624-627; Thomas R. Verny, "The Scientific Basis of Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology: Part 1." Pre- and Peri-Natal Psychology 3 (1989): 166.
62. Ernest M. Gruenberg, "On the Psychosomatics of the Not-So-Perfect-Fetal Parasite." In Stephen A. Richardson and Alan F. Guttmacher, Eds. Childbearing: Its Social and Psychological Aspects. New York: Williams & Wilkins, 1967, p. 54.
63. Roger E. Stevenson, The Fetus and Newly Born Infant: Influences of the Prenatal Environment. 2nd Ed. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1977, p. 3.
64. Heinz Bartels. Prenatal Respiration. New York: John Wiley and Sons, p. 47.
65. A. Briend, "Fetal Malnutrition: The Price of Upright Posture?" British Medical Journal 2(1979): 317-319.
66. Joseph Barcroft, Researches in Pre-Natal Life. Vol. 1. Springfield,