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Babies are not what we thought they were in the 19th century or even twenty five years ago. Abundant new findings from experimental research, psychotherapy, and anecdotal reports have rendered traditional views of human development obsolete, yet many obstetricians and psychologists continue to view babies in 19th century terms. The author summarizes this view and its failings and assembles the evidence for a new paradigm that babies, of whatever age, are aware, expressive, and affected by their interactions with others.


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166. Papousek, H. and Papousek, A. (1987). Intuitive parenting: A dialectic counterpart to the infant's integrative competence. In: J. Osofsky (Ed.) Handbook of Infant Development. 2nd. ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp. 669-720

David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D.

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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