Life in the Womb: Dangers and Opportunities

Issue: 
Publication Date: 
10/1999
Page Count: 
13
Starting Page: 
31
Price: $10.00
Abstract: 

As scientific knowledge of life before birth continues to increase, the prenate is revealed to be more sensitive and capable than we ever thought possible, opening up new opportunities for growth and ideal communications between babies and their mothers and fathers. Working against this force for good, the world environment becomes ever more toxic and invasive bringing hazards directly into the womb. A mother's own stresses and emotions constitute yet another environmental hazard. At stake is the future health of individual persons, the stability of families, and the peace of society.

References: 

1. Verny, T. R. with Kelley, J. (1986), The secret life of the unborn child. NY: Dell. Chamberlain, D. B. (1998), The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley CA: North Atlantic Books; Chamberlain, D. B. (1994), The sentient prenate: What every parent should know. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(1), 9-31.

2. Barker, D. J. P. (Editor) (1992), Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal; Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D., and Myers, J. P. (1996), Our stolen future: Are we threatening our fertility, intelligence, and survival? A scientific detective story. NY: Button.

3. Moore, K. L., Persaud, T.V.N., and Shiota, K. (1994). Color atlas of clinical embryology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

4. Ravelli, G. P., Stein, Z. A., and Susser, M. W. (1976), Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 295(7), 349-353.

5. Odent, M. (1995), Schizophrenia, zinc, and primal health research. Primal Health Research, 3(2), (Autumn), 3-7. (599 Roderick Rd., London NWS 2NP, England)

6. Elkington, J. (1985), The poisoned womb: Human reproduction in a polluted world. NY: Viking.

7. Schnitzer, P. G., Olshan, A. F., and Erickson, J. D. (1995), Paternal occupation and risk of birth defects in offspring. Epidemiology 6(6), 577-583.

8. Briggs, G. G., Freeman, R. K, and Yaffe, S. J. (1994), Drugs in pregnancy and lactation: A guide to fetal and neonatal risk (4th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

9. Meyer-Bahlberg, H. F. L., Ehrhardt, A. A., Rosen, L. R., Gruen, R. S. et al. (1995), Prenatal estrogens and the development of homosexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 12-21.

10. Profet, M. (1995), Protecting your baby-to-be: Preventing birth defects in the first trimester. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

11. Newnham, J. P., Evans, S. F., Michael, C. A., Stanley, F. J., and Landau, L. I. (1993), Effects of frequent ultrasound during pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial. The Lancet, 342 (Oct. 9, 1993), 887-891; Ellisman, M. K., Palmer, D. E., and Andre, M. P. (1987), Diagnostic levels of ultrasound may disrupt myelination. Experimental Neurology, 98, 78-92; Campbell, J. D., Elford, R. W., and Brant, R. F. (1993), case-controlled study of prenatal ultrasound exposure in children with delayed speech. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 149(10), 1435-1440.

12. Odent, M. (1995), Is the amniotic fluid becoming a "sea of estrogens"? Primal Health Research 3(1) (Summer), 4-7. (599 Roderick Rd., London NWS 2NP, England).

13. Arnold, S. F., Klotz, D. M., Collins, B. M., Vonier, P. M., Guillette, L. J., and McLachlan, J. A. (1996), Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. Science, 272 (7 June), 1489-1492.

14. Dorner, G. (1991), Hormone-dependent brain development and behavior. International J. Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 3(3/4), 183-189; Ward, O. B. (1992), Fetal drug exposure and sexual differentiation of males. In: Arnold A. Gerall, H. Moltz, and I. L. Ward (Eds.), Sexual differentiation, Vol. 11 of Handbook of behavioral neurobiology (pp. 181-219). NY: Plenum.

15. Ellis, L., Peckham, W., Ames, M. A., and Burke, D. (1988), Sexual orientation of human offspring may be altered by severe maternal stress during pregnancy. J. of Sex Research, 25(1), 152-157.

16. Chamberlain, D. B. (1992), Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. International J. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 4(3/4), 161-177.

17. Tajani, E. and lanniruberto, A. (1990), The uncovering of fetal competence. In M. Papini, A. Pasquinelli, and E. A. Gidoni (Eds.), Development, handicap, rehabilitation: Practice and theory (pp. 3-8). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers/Biomedical Div.

18. Shahidullah, S. and Hepper, P. G. (1992), Hearing in the fetus: Prenatal detection of deafness. International J. Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(3/4), 235-240.

19. Piontelli, A. (1989), A study on twins before and after birth. International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 16, 413-426.

20. Benirschke, K. (1993), Intrauterine death of a twin: Mechanisms, implications for surviving twin and placental pathology. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 10(3), 222-231.

21. Truby, H. M. (1975), Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech, and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language 1975, a special issue of WORD, 27, parts 1-3.

22. Zimmer, E. Z., Chao, C. R., Guy, G. P., Marks, F., and Fifer, W. P. (1993), Vibroacoustic stimulation evokes human fetal micturition. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 81(2), 178-180.

23. Johnson, R. L., Strong, T. H., Radin, T. G., and Elliott, J. P. (1995), Fetal acoustic stimulation as an adjunct to external cephalic version. J. Reproductive Medicine, 40, 696-698.

24. Bustan, M. N. and Coker, A. L. (1994), Maternal attitude toward pregnancy and the risk of neonatal death. American J. Public Health, 84(3), 411-414.

25. Roe, K. V. and Drivas, A. (1993), Planned conception and infant functioning at age three months: A cross-cultural study. American J. of Orthopsychiatry, 63(1), 120-125

26. David, H. P., Dytrych, Z., Matejcek, Z. and Schuller, V. (1988), Born unwanted: Developmental effects of denied abortion. Prague: Czechoslovak Medical Press and NY: Springer.

27. Collins, S. K. and Kuck, K. (1991), Music therapy in the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal Network 9(6) (March), 23-26.

28. Gatts, J., Winchester, S., and Fiske, K. (1992), The safety of partial intrauterine analog transition environment: A literature review and discussion. Neonatal Intensive Care, 5, 51-57.

29. Thoman, E. B. and Ingersoll, E. W. (1993), Learning hi premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 692-700.; Thoman, E. B., Hammond, K., Affleck, G., and Desilva, H. N. (1995), The breathing bear with preterm infants: Effects on sleep, respiration, and affect. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16(3), 160-168.

30. Busnel, M-C., Granier-Deferre, C., and Lecanuet, J-P. (1992), Fetal audition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 662 (Oct 20), 118-134.

31. Hepper, P. G. (1991), An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. Irish J. of Psychology, 12(2), 95-107.

32. DeCasper, A. J. and Spence, M. (1982), Prenatal maternal speech influences human newborn's auditory preferences. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133-150.

33. DeCasper, A. J., Lecanuet, J-P, and Busnel, M-C., Granier-Deferre, C., and Mangeais, R. (1994), Fetal reactions to recurrent maternal speech. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(2), 159-164.

34. Van de Carr, F. R. and Lehrer, M. (1988), Prenatal University: Commitment to fetal-family bonding and the strengthening of the family unit as an educational institution. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(2), 87-102.

35. Van de Carr, F. R. and Lehrer, M. (1992), The prenatal classroom: A parents guide for teaching your baby in the womb. Atlanta: Humanics Learning.

36. Van de Carr, F. R. and Lehrer, M. (1986), Enhancing early speech, parental bonding, and infant physical development using prenatal intervention in standard obstetric practice. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(1), 20-30.

37. Van de Carr, K., Van de Carr, F. R., and Lehrer, M. (1988), Effects of a prenatal intervention program. In: P. Fedor-Freybergh and M. L. V. Vogel (Eds.) Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, (pp. 489-495), Lancaster, England: Parthenon Publishers.

38. Panthuraamphorn, C. (1993), Prenatal infant stimulation program. In: T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning, and bonding (pp. 187-220) Berlin & Hong Kong: Leonardo. (Blum, Helgolander Ufer 5, S-1000 Berlin 21).

39. Manrique, B. (1995), CEDIHAC-CEDI, Caracas, Venezuela: CEDIHAC. (Av. Libertador, Edif. Nuevo Centre piso 9, ofic E, Chacao, Caracas, Venezuela)

David B. Chamberlain, Ph.D.