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Body language is a direct form of communication which begins long before formal language, occurs continually, and has universal meanings throughout the life span. Current technologies permit us to observe human movement and expression during the entire period of human gestation, and reveal the early origins of sensory perception, emotional expression, and personality. There appear to be three types of prenatal body language: 1) self-initiated, spontaneous movements, 2) behaviors reactive to the environment, and 3) interactive, social behaviors. These early behaviors add greatly to the empirical database of prenatal psychology and have important implications for developmental psychology, neonatology, therapeutic work with primal trauma, and our understanding of human consciousness.


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JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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