Prenatal Body Language: A New Perspective on Ourselves

Issue: 
Publication Date: 
10/1999
Page Count: 
17
Starting Page: 
169
Price: $10.00
Abstract: 

Body language is a direct form of communication which begins long before formal language, occurs continually, and has universal meanings throughout the life span. Current technologies permit us to observe human movement and expression during the entire period of human gestation, and reveal the early origins of sensory perception, emotional expression, and personality. There appear to be three types of prenatal body language: 1) self-initiated, spontaneous movements, 2) behaviors reactive to the environment, and 3) interactive, social behaviors. These early behaviors add greatly to the empirical database of prenatal psychology and have important implications for developmental psychology, neonatology, therapeutic work with primal trauma, and our understanding of human consciousness.

References: 

Anand, K.J.S. & Aynsley-Green, A. (1985). Metabolic and endocrine effects of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm neonate: Are there implications for further improvement in postoperative outcome? Modern Problems of Pediatrics, 23, 143-157.

Anand, K.J.S. & Hickey, P. R. (1987). Pain and its effects on the human neonate and fetus. New England Journal of Medicine, 317 (21), 1321-1329.

Arabin, B. (1994). [Videotape] Sophia Ziekenhuis, 8025-AB, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Baker, R.A. (1978). Technologic intervention in obstetrics. Obstetrics & Gynecology Journal, 51, 2.

Birnholz, J., Stephens, J.C. & Faria, M. (1978). Fetal movement patterns: A possible means of defining neurological development milestones in utero. Amer. J. Roentology, 130, 537-540.

Birnholz, J.C. (1981). The development of human fetal eye movement patterns. Science, 213, 679-681.

Blass, E.M., Ganchrow, J.R. & Steiner, J.E. (1984). Classical conditioning in newborn humans 2-48 hours of age. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 223-235.

Blass, E.M. & Smith, B.A. (1992). Differential effects of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and lactose on crying in 1-to-3-day old human infants: Qualitative and quantitative considerations. Developmental Psychology, 28, (5), 804-810.

Blum, T. (1991). Early prenatal perception and adequate auditive stimulation. Int. J. Prenatal & Perinatal Studies, 3, 283-296.

Bower, T.G.R. (1977). A primer of infant development. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Busnel, M-C., Granier-Deferre, C. & Lecanuet, J. P (1922). Fetal Audition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 662 (Oct. 20), 118-134.

Butterworth, G. & Hopkins, B. (1988). Hand-mouth coordination in the newborn baby. British J. Developmental Psychology, 6(4), 303-314.

Chamberlain, D.B., (1998). The mind of your newborn baby (3rd ed.), Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Chamberlain, D.B. (1992). Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. International J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4(2) (Oct), 161-177.

Chamberlain, D.B. (1994). Babies don't feel pain: A century of denial in medicine. Paper first presented to 2nd Int. Symposium of Circumcision. San Francisco 1991. Revised 1998.

Chapman, J.S. (1995). The relation between auditory stimulation of short gestation infants and their gross motor limb activity. Ph.D. Dissertation. New York University.

Chayen, B., Tajani, N., Verma, U. L. & Gordon, G. (1986). Fetal heart rate changes and uterine activity during coitus. Acta Obstetrica Gyn. Scandinavica, 65, 853-855.

Clements, M. (1977), Observations on certain aspects of prenatal behavior in response to auditory stimuli. Paper presented at the 5th Int. Congress of Psychosomatic Ob/Gyn, Rome.

Collins, S. K. and Kuck, K. (1991). Music therapy in the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal Network, 9(6), 23-26.

Cooper, R. and Aslin, R.N. (1990). Preference for infant-directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Development, 61(5), 1584-1595.

Correia, I.B. (1987). Communicacao no venire materno. Master's degree thesis. Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro.

Correia, I.E. (1994). The impact of television stimuli on the prenatal infant. Ph.D. Dissertation. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Cowert, B.J. (1981). Development of taste perception in humans: Sensitivity and preference throughout the life span. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 43-73.

Cunningham, N. (1990). Ethical perspectives on the perception and treatment of neonatal pain. J. Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 4(1), 75-83.

DeCasper, A. & Fifer, W. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mother's voices. Science, 208, 1174-1176.

DeCasper, A. & Spence, M. (1982). Prenatal maternal speech influences human newhorns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior & Development, 9, 133-150.

DeCasper, A. J., Lecanuet, J-P, Busnell, M-C., Granier-Deferre, C. & Maugeais, R. (1994). Fetal reactions to recurrent maternal speech. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(2), 159-164.

DeSnoo, K. (1937). Das trinkende kind im uterus: Monatsshrift fur Geburtshilfe & Gynaekologie, 105, 88-97.

Desor, J. A., Mailer, O. and Turner, R.G. (1973). Taste in acceptance of sugars by human infants. J. Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 84, 496-501.

deVries, J.I.P., Visser, G.H.A. and Prechtl, H.F.R. (1985) The emergence of fetal behavior. II Quantitative aspects. Early Human Development, 12, 99-120.

Dreyfus-Brisac, C. (1970). Ontogenesis of sleep in human pre-matures after 32 weeks of conceptual age. Developmental Psychology, 3(2), 91-121.

Emde, R., McCartney, R. and Harmon, R. (1971). Neonatal smiling in REM states. IV. Premature study, Child Development 42, 1657-1661.

Feijoo, J. (1981). Le foetus Pierre et le loup: On une approche originale de l'audition prenatle humaine. In E. Herbinet and M-C Busnel, (Eds.), L'aube des sens. Paris: Stock.

Field, T., Woodson, R., Cohen, D., Greenberg, R., Garcia, R. & Collins, K. (1983). Discrimination and imitation of facial expressions by term and preterm neonates. Infant Behavior & Development, 6, 485-490.

Flavell, J.H. (1977\\1985). Cognitive development. Englewood Cuffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall (2nd ed.).

Fox, N. E., Steinbrecher, M., Pessel, D., Inglis, J., Medvid, L. and Angel, E. (1978). Maternal alcohol ingestion and the occurrence of human fetal breathing movements. Amer. J. Ob/Gyn 132, 354-358.

Franck, L. S. (1987). A national survey of the assessment and treatment of pain and agitation in the neonatal intensive care unit. J. Ob / Gyn Neonatal Nursing, 16(6), 387-393.

Freeman, M. (1987). Is infant learning egocentric or duocentric? Was Piaget wrong? Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 2(1), 25-42.

Gallagher, M.W., Costigan, K. and Johnson, T.R.B. (1992). Fetal heart accelerations, fetal movement, and fetal behavior patterns in twin generations. Amer. J. Ob/Gyn, 167(4) 1140-1144.

Gatts, J. D., Wallace, D. H., Glasscock, G. F., McKee, E. & Cohen, R. S. (1994). A modified newborn intensive care unit environment may shorten hospital stay. J. of Perinatology, 14(5), 422-427.

Giannokoulopoulos, X., Sepulveda, W., Kourtis, P., Glover, V. and Fisk, N. M. (1994). Fetal plasma cortisol and B-endorphin response to intrauterine needling. Lancet, 344 (July), 77-81.

Goodling, R.C., Schmidt, W. and Creevy, B.C. (1972). Uterine tension and fetal heart rate during maternal orgasm. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 39(1), 125-127.

Gottfried, A.W. & Gaiter, J.L., (Eds.) (1985). Infant stress under intensive care: Environmental neonatology. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Greenspan, S.I and Greenspan, N. T. (1985). First feelings: Milestones in the emotional development of your baby and child. New York: Viking.

Harrison, H. (1986). Letter. Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care, 13(2), 124.

Hepper, P.G. (1988). Fetal "Soap" addiction. Letter to Lancet, 11 June, 1347-1348.

Hepper, P.G. (1991). An examination of fetal learning before and after birth. Irish J. Psychology, 12, 95-107.

Hepper, P.G. (1992). An interface between psychology and medicine: The antenatal detection of handicap. In R. Klimek, (Ed.), Pre- & Perinatal Psycho-Medicine. DWN Dream: Cracow.

Hill, L.M., Platt, L.D. & Manning, F.A. (1979). Immediate effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing and gross body movement. American J. Ob/Gyn, 135, 689-690.

Hitchcock, D. A., Sutphen, J. H. & Scholly, T. A. (1980). Demonstration of fetal penile erection in utero. Perinatology/Neonatology, 4, 59-60.

Hofer, M. A. (1981). The roots of human behavior: An introduction to the psychobiology of early development. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.

Hofer, M. A. (1989). On the nature and function of prenatal behavior. In: Smotherman, S. P and Robinson, S.R. (Eds.) Behavior of the fetus. Caldwell, NJ: Telford Press.

Humphrey, T. (1978). Function of the nervous system during pre-natal life. In U. Stave (Ed.), Physiology of the Perinatal Period, Vol. 2, 751-796. New York: Plenum Medical.

Ianniruberto, A and Tajani, E. (1981). Ultrasonographic Study of fetal movements. Seminars in Perinatology, 5, 175-181.

Johnson, T.R.B., Besinger, R. E. & Thomas, R.L. (1989). The latest clues to fetal behavior and well-being. Contemporary Pediatrics, January, 66-84.

Johnson, T.R.B. (1993). [Videotape] Dept. of Ob/Gyn, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI.

Johnson, T. R. B. and Johnson, M.J. (1993). Identifying fetal movement and behavior patterns. Contemporary Ob/Gyn, Sept. 11-16.

Kagan, J. (1981). The second year: The emergence of self-awareness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kisilevsky, B. S. & Muir, D.W. (1991). Human fetal and subsequent newborn responses to sound and vibration. Infant Behavior and Development, 14(1), 1-26.

Kisilevsky, B. S., Muir, D.W. and Low, J. A. (1992). Maturation of the human fetal responses to vibroacoustic stimulation. Child Development, 63(6), 1497-1508.

Kobre, K. R. and Lipsitt, L. P. (1972). A negative contrast effect in newborns, J. Experimental Child Psychology, 14, 81-91.

Leader, L.R., Bailie, P., Martin, B. & Vermeulen, E. (1982). The assessment and significance of habituation to a repeated stimulus by the human fetus. Early Human Development, 7, 211-219.

Lester, B.M. and Boukydis, C.F.Z. (Eds.) (1985). Infant crying: Theoretical and research perspectives. New York: Plenum.

Liley, A.W. (1972). The fetus as a personality. Australian and New Zealand J. of Psychiatry. 6(2), 99-105.

Lipsitt, L. P. (1990). Learning and memory in infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 36(1), 53-66.

Madison, L. S., Adubato, S.A. & Madison, J.K. et al (1986). Fetal response decrement: True habituation? J. Development & Behavioral Pediatrics, 7(1), 14-20.

Manning, F.A, Platt, L.D. & Lemay, M. (1977). Effect of amniocentesis on fetal breathing movements. British Medical Journal 2, 1582-1583.

Mehler, J. P., Jusczyk, G., Lambers, N. Halsted, N. Bertoncini, J., and Amiel-Tison, C. (1988). A precursor of language acquisition in young infants. Cognition, 29 143-178.

Meltzoff, A.N. & Moore, M.K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, Oct. 7, 75-78.

Meltzoff, A.N. and Moore, M.K. (1994). Imitation, memory, and the representation of persons. Infant Behavior & Development 17, 83-99.

Moon, C. & Fifer, W. P. (1990). Syllables as signals for 2-day-old infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 13(3), 377-390.

Moon, C., Cooper, R. P. and Fifer, W. P. (1993). Two-day-olds prefer their native language. Infant Behavior & Development. 16, 495-500.

Mosser, C. (1989). Effet physiologique des stimulations sonores chez le premature. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Paris XII, Paris, France.

Neldam, S. and Pedersen, J.F. (1980). Fetal heart rate response to amniocentesis in early pregnancy. J. Perinatal Medicine, 8, 209-212.

Nijhuis, J.G. (Ed.) (1992). Fetal behavior: Developmental and perinatal aspects. Oxford, England: Oxford University.

Olds, C. (1986). A sound start in life. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal., 1(1), 82-85.

Panthuraamphorn, C. (1993). Prenatal infant stimulation program. In T. Blum (Ed.), Prenatal perception, learning & bonding. Berlin: Leonardo.

Papousek, H., Papousek, M. and Koester, L. S. (1986). Sharing emotionality and sharing knowledge: A microanalytic approach to parent infant communication. In: Izard, C. E. and Reed, P. (Eds.), Measuring emotions in infants and children. Vol. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Peleg, D. and Goldman, J. A. (1980). Fetal heart rate acceleration in response to light stimulation as a clinical measure of fetal well-being: A preliminary report. J. Perinatal Medicine, 8(1), 38-41.

Piaget, J. (1973). The child and reality: Problems of genetic psychology. New York: Grossman/Viking.

Pillai, M. & James, D. (1990). Are there behavioral states of the newborn comparable to those of the fetus? Early Human Development, 22(1), 39-49.

Piontelli, A. (1987). Infant observation from before birth. International J. Psycho-Analysis, 68, 453-463.

Prechtl, H.F.R. (1977). The neurological examination of the full term newborn infant: A manual for clinical use. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 79. London: Spastics International Medical Publications.

Prechtl, H.F.R. (1985). Ultrasound studies of human fetal behavior. Early Human Development, 12, 91-98.

Preyer, W.T. (1888). The mind of the child: The senses and the will. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Provine, R. R. (1989). On the uniqueness of embryos and the difference it makes. In: Smotherman, W. P. and Robinson, S. R. (Eds.), Behavior of the fetus. Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press.

Querleu, D., Renard, X., Versyp, F., Paris-Delrue, & Vervoort, P. (1988). Fetal hearing. European J. Ob/Gyn & Reproductive Biology 29, 191-212.

Rana, S. R. (1987). Pain: A subject ignored. Pediatrics 79, 309.

Reissland, N. (1988). Neonatal imitation in the first hour of life: Observations in rural Nepal. Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 464-469.

Roberts, A.B., Griffen, D., Mooney, R., Cooper, D.J. & Campbell, S. (1980). Fetal activity in 100 normal third trimester pregnancies. British J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 87, 480-484.

Robinson, S. R. and Smothennan, W. P. (1992). The emergence of behavioral regulation during fetal development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 662 (Oct. 20, 1992), 53-83.

Roffwarg, H.P., Muzio, J.N. & Dement, W.C. (1966). Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science, 152, 604-619.

Ron, M. & Polishuk, W.Z. (1976). The response of the fetal heart rate to amniocentesis. British J. Ob/Gyn, 83, 768.

Rossi, N., Aweduti, P., Rizzo, N. & Lorusso, R. (1989). Maternal stress and fetal motor behavior: A preliminary report. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 3(4), 311-318. See follow up letter, same Journal, 4(4), 265-266.

Ryder, G.H. (1943). Vagitus uterinus. Amer. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 46, 967-872.

Satt, B.J. (1984). An investigation into the acoustical induction of intrauterine learning. Ph.D. Dissertation. California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.

Shahidullah, S. & Hepper, P.G. (1992). Hearing in the fetus: Prenatal detection of deafness. International J. Prenatal & Perinatal Studies, 4(3/4), 235-240.

Slater, A., Morrison, V., & Rose, D. (1984). Habituation in the newborn. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 183-200.

Smothennan, W. P. and Robinson, S. R. (1987). Prenatal influences on development: Behavior is not a trivial aspect of fetal life. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 8(3), 171-176.

Smothennan, W. P. and Robinson, S. R. (1987). Behavior of the fetus. Caldwell, NJ: The Telford Press.

Sontag, L.W. (1966). Implications of fetal behavior and environment for adult personalities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 134, 782-789.

Smyth, C.N. (1965). Experimental methods for testing the integrity of the fetus and neonate. J. Ob/Gyn British Commonwealth, 72, 920.

Spelt, D.K. (1948). The conditioning of the fetus in utero. J. Experimental Psychology, 38, 454-461.

Straub, M.F. (1971). Self-stimulation in utero. Psychological Reports, 28, 55-63.

Straub, M.F. (1992). A theory of the psychophysiological consequences of umbilical cord manipulation by the fetus. Pre-& Perinatal Psychology Journal, 7(2), 61-71.

Tajani, E. and Ianniruberto, A. (1990). The uncovering of fetal competence. In M. Papini, A. Pasquinelli & E.A. Gidoni (Eds.), Development, handicap, rehabilitation: Practice and theory. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Tatzer, E., Schubert, M. T., Timischl, W. & Simbruner, G. (1985). Discrimination of taste and preference for sweet in premature babies. Early Human Development, 12, 23-30.

Thoman, E.B., Ingersoll, E.W. & Acebo, C. (1991). Premature infants seek rhythmic stimulation, and the experience facilitates neurobehavioral development. J. of Development & Behavioral Pediatrics, 12(11), 11-18.

Thoman, C. & Ingersoll, E.W. (1993). Learning in premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 692-700.

Truby, H.M. (1975). Prenatal and neonatal speech, pre-speech and an infantile speech lexicon. Child Language 1975, a special issue of WORD, 27(Parts 1-3).

Van de Carr, F.R. & Lehrer, M. (1992). The prenatal classroom: A parent's guide for teaching your baby in the womb. Atlanta, GA: Humanics Learning.

Van den Burgh, B.R.H. (1992). Maternal emotions during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal behavior. In: J.G. Nijhuis (Ed.), Fetal behavior: Developmental aspects. Oxford: University Press.

Van Dongen, L.G.R., & Goudie, E.G. (1980). Fetal movement patterns in the first trimester of pregnancy. British J. Ob/Gyn, 87, 191-193.

Verny, T.R. with Kelly, J. (1986). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell.

Vintner, A. (1986). The role of movement in eliciting early imitations. Child Development, 57, 66-71.

Von Hofsten, C. and Ronnqvist, L. (1993). The structuring of neonatal arm movements. Child Development, 64(4), 1046-1057.

Walker, D., Grimwade, J. & Wood, C. (1971). Intrauterine noise: A component of the fetal environment. Amer. J. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 109, 91-95.

Woodward, S. C. (1992). The transmission of music into the human fetus and neonate. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Capetown, South Africa.

Zelazo, P. R., Weiss, M.J., Papagiorgion, A.N. and Laplante, D. P., (1989). Recovery and dishabituation of sound localization among normal-, moderate-, and high-risk newborns: Discriminant validity. Infant Behavior & Development, 12(3), 321-340.