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The prenatal encounter is the beginning of the continuum of human life towards self-realization. It presents a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of psychological, emotional, and physical disorders in later life and inspires a new interdisciplinary dialogue that replaces isolation and disagreement. Prenatal science demands a new level of harmony and integration among specialties to understand the nature of all life and supports the needed renaissance of human empathic relationships and spiritual unity in ecological peace.


1. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. & Vogel, V. (1988). Encounter with the unborn: Philosophical impetus behind prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine. In P. G. FedorFreybergh, & V. Vogel (Eds.), Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine. Encounter with the Unborn: A Comprehensive Survey of Research and Practice (pp. xviii-xxxii). Carnforth, UK: Parthenon Publishing.

2. See 1.

3. Turner J. R. & Turner, T., (1998). Conception: Vital link in relationships in prenatal psychology. Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 10(1), 29-37.

4. Fedor-Freybergh, P.G. (1982). Prenatálni a perinátálni psychologie a medicina: Nový pristup k primári prevenci (Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: The new approach to primary prevention), Kontext 8(2), 6-9.

5. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1993). Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: A new approach to primary prevention. Int. J. Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Medicine 5(3), 285-292. Proceeded by Fedor-Freybergh, Peter G., (1983). Psycophysische Gegebenheiten der Perinalzeit als Umwelt des Kindes (Psychophysical conditions of the perinatal period as the child's environment). In S. Schindler & H. Zimprich (Eds.), Okologie der perinatalzei (Ecology of the perinatal time) (pp.24-49). Stuttgart: Hippocrates.

6. Brekhman, G. I. (2000). The conception of the multiple-level coordinated action between the mother and her unborn child: The methodological approach and the methods of research. Paper presented to the ISPPM Congress in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy (June).

7. See 1.

8. See 1.

9. See 1.

10. See 5.

11. See 5.

12. See 1.

13. See 1.

14. See 1.

15. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1990). Presidential Address, 9th International Congress on Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Jerusalem. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 4(3), 241-248.

16. See 1.

17. Tyano, S. (1987). Personal Communication.

18. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1985). The biochemistry of bonding. Paper presented to the 2nd International Congress of the Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Association of North America,

San Diego, California (July).

19. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1990). Continuity from prenatal to postnatal life. In M. Papini, A. Pasquinelli, & E. A. Gidoni (Eds.), Development, handicap, rehabilitation: Practice and theory (pp. 2590-263). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.

20. See 1.

21. See 7.

22. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1992). The prenatal and perinatal science and practice in the changing world. Presidential Address, 10th International Congress on Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Cracow. Int. J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4, 155-160.

23. See 1.

24. See 22.

25. See 5.

26. See 21.

27. David, H. P., Dytrych, Z., Matêjcek, Z., & Schüller, V. (1988). Born unwanted: Developmental effects of denied abortion. New York: Springer and Prague: Avicenum.

28. Matejcek, Z., Dytrych, Z., & Schüller, V. (1987). Kinder aus unerwünschter Schwangerschaft geboren. Longitudinale Studie über 20 jahre (Children born from unwanted pregnancies: A longitudinal study over twenty years). In Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (Ed.) Pranatale und Prenatale Psychologie und Medizin (pp. 77-92). Berlin: Rotation.

29. Matejcek, Z. & Dytrych, Z. (1994). Abgelehnte Schwangerschaften und ihre Folgen (Denied abortions and their consequences. In H. Häsing & L. Janus (Eds.), Ungewollte Kinder (Unwanted children) (pp. 194-199). Reinbek: Rororo.

30. Turner, J. R. G. & Turner, T. (1997). Personal growth in parenting: A vital link to prevention in prenatal psychology. Int. J. Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 9(3), 275-286.

31. See 5.

32. See 1.

33. See 29.

34. World Health Organization (1986). Health research strategy for health for all by the year 2000. Geneva: WHO.

35. Zikmund, V. (1993). Dimensions of health and disease: Biological, psychological and social. Int. J. of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 5(3), 265-276.

36. Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. (1976) Hormone therapy in psychiatry. In T. M. Itil, G. Laudahn & W. M. Herrman (Eds.), Psychotropic action of hormones (pp. 1-51). New York: Spectrum.

37. See 15.

38. Saint-Exupéry, A. de (1946). Le petit prince (The little prince). Paris: Librairie Gallimard.

39. See 1.

Peter G. Fedor-Freybergh, M.D., Ph.D.*

* Dr. Fedor-Freybergh is Founder and Editor-in-Chief of the Int. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, and is Chief Editor of Neuroendocrine Letters. He practices obstetrics and gynecology in Stockholm and serves as Professor of Child Psychiatry at the 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague. Correspondence to: Professor Peter G. Fedor-Freybergh, Mail Boxes Etc 377, Birger Jarlsgatan 39, S-111 73, Stockholm, Sweden. Email:

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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