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The subjects of this longitudinal study were 83 mothers, who responded to questionnaires during the following five phases of their child's life: the fetal, neonatal, and one-, two-, and three-year-old phases. Using the Prenatal and Maternal Attachment Inventory, this study highlights items related to groups of mothers with high and low attachment to their children. Attachment is related both to maternal attitudes toward the child and to her own anxiety level. Attachment difficulties are first revealed in the prenatal period. The strength of a mother's attachment to her child strongly affects present and future relationships with that child.


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Junko Tsujino, M.A., Mayumi Oyama Higa, D.Eng., and Tadashi Inuihara, M.A.

All three authors are at Kwansei Gakuin University Graduate School in Hyogo, Japan. Prof. Mayumi Oyama Higa, D.Eng., is at the Center for Information and Media Studies and School of Humanities, and Prof. Tadashi Inuihara is in the Department of Education. Please address email correspondence about this article to Junko Tsujino, researcher in the Dept. of Education, School of Humanities:

JOURNAL OF PRENATAL AND PERINATAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH publishes research and clinical articles from the cutting edge of the science of prenatal and perinatal psychology and health. The journal, published quarterly since 1986, is dedicated to the in-depth exploration human reproduction and pregnancy and the mental and emotional development of the unborn and newborn child.

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