The subjects of this longitudinal study were 83 mothers, who responded to questionnaires during the following five phases of their child's life: the fetal, neonatal, and one-, two-, and three-year-old phases. Using the Prenatal and Maternal Attachment Inventory, this study highlights items related to groups of mothers with high and low attachment to their children. Attachment is related both to maternal attitudes toward the child and to her own anxiety level. Attachment difficulties are first revealed in the prenatal period. The strength of a mother's attachment to her child strongly affects present and future relationships with that child.
Bates, J. E. & Bayles, K. (1988). Attachment and the development of behavior problems. In Belsky, J., & Nezworski, T., (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Vol. I: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Cramer, B. (1989). Profession bébé. Paris: Calmann Levy.
Cranley, M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30, 281-284.
Feeney, J. & Noller, P. (1996). Adult attachment. London: SAGE Publications.
Kitamura, T. (1988). Theory and practice for measuring mental symptoms (2nd éd.). Japan: Kaimei sha (in Japanese).
Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1982). Parent-infant bonding. St Louis: Mosby Company.
Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S., May, K, Dejoseph, J., & Sollid, D. (1988). Further exploration of maternal and paternal fetal attachment. Research in Nursing & Health, 11, 83-95.
Mizuguchi, K., Shimozato, Y., & Nakazato, K (1991). State-trait anxiety inventory (Japanese edition). Japan: Sankyouboh (in Japanese).
Müller, M. E. (1990). Binding-in: Still a relevant concept? Clinical Issues in Prenatal and Women's Health Nursing, 1(2), 297-302.
Müller, M. E. (1992). A critical review of prenatal attachment research. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 6(1), 5-26.
Müller, M. E. (1993). Development of the prenatal attachment inventory. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 75(2), 199-215.
Müller, M. E. (1994). A questionnaire to measure mother-to-infant attachment. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 2(2), 129-141.
Müller, M. E. (1996). Prenatal and postnatal attachment: a modest correlation. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 25(2), 161-166.
Paker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). Parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI Manual. Consulting Psychologist Press, 23-49.
Junko Tsujino, M.A., Mayumi Oyama Higa, D.Eng., and Tadashi Inuihara, M.A.
All three authors are at Kwansei Gakuin University Graduate School in Hyogo, Japan. Prof. Mayumi Oyama Higa, D.Eng., is at the Center for Information and Media Studies and School of Humanities, and Prof. Tadashi Inuihara is in the Department of Education. Please address email correspondence about this article to Junko Tsujino, researcher in the Dept. of Education, School of Humanities: email@example.com.