Assisted Reproductive Technology: Psychological Effects on Offspring
This paper will briefly describe the Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) techniques used currently, study the psychological impact of ART on the offspring, and consider ways in which more consciousness can be brought to artificial conception.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Castellino, R. (1995). The polarity therapy paradigm regarding pre-conception, prenatal and birth imprinting. Available from Castellino Training Seminars, 1105 N. Ontare, Santa Barbara, Ca 93105.
Castellino, R. (1996) Umbilical affect: stage four, bonding, circumcision and treatment strategies. Unpublished manuscript distributed only in his training.
Chamberlain, D. (1988). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.
Conkling, W. (1998). Getting pregnant naturally: Healthy choices to boost your chances of conceiving without fertility drugs. New York: Aron Books.
Davis-Floyd, R. & Dumit, J. (1998) Cyborg babies. From techno-sex to techno-tots. New York and London: Routledge.
Farrant, G. (1998). Cellular consciousness and conception: an interview with Dr. Graham Farrant. Interview by Steven Raymond. Pre- and Perinatal News, 2(2), 4-7 and 20-22.
Gibson, F., Ungerer, J., McMahon, C., Leslie, G., & Saunders, D. (2000). The motherchild relationship following in vitro fertilization (IVF): Infant attachment, responsivity, and maternal sensitivity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 41(8), 1015-1023.
Golombok, S., MacCullum, F., Goodman, E., & Rutter, M. (2002). Families with children conceived by donor insemination: A follow-up at age twelve. Child Development, 73(3), 952-968.
Hahn & Chun-Shin (2001). : In vitro fertilization and the family: Quality of parenting, family functioning, and child psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37(1), 37-48.
Hahn & Chun-Shin (2001). Review: Psychosocial well being of parents and their children born after assisted reproduction. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(8), 525-538.
Landau, R. (1998). Secrecy, anonymity, and deception in donor insemination: A genetic, psychosocial and ethical critique. Social Work in Health Care, 28(1), 75-89.
Levy-Shiff, R., Vakil, E., Dimitrovsky, L., Abramovitz, M., Shahar, N., Har-Even, D., Gross, S., Lerman, M., Levy, I., Sirota L., & Fish, B. (1998). Medical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes in school-age children conceived by in-vitro fertilization. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(3), 320-329.
London, N. (2001). Hot fashes, warm bottles: First-time mothers over forty. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. Web site: http://www.mothersoverforty.com/
Luminare-Rosen, C. (2000) Parenting begins before conception. A guide to preparing body, mind and spirit for you and your future child. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press.
McCarty, W.A. (1996) Being with babies. What babies are teaching us. Vol. 1. Available from Wondrous Beginnings, 5662 Calle Real, 221. Goleta. Ca 93117.
McMahon, C.A., Tennant, C., Ungerer, J., & Saunders, D. (1999). Don't count your chickens: A comparative study of the experience of pregnancy after IVF conception. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 77(4), 345-356.
Malin, M., Hemminki, E., Raeikkoenen, O., Sihvo, S., & Peraelae, M.L. (2001). What do women want? Women's experiences of infertility treatment. Social Science & Medicine, 53,(1), 123-133.
Malpani, A. & Malpani, A. (2001). How to have a baby. Overcoming infertility. New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors Ltd.
Papaligoura & Zaira (2001). Mother-infant communication can be enhanced after conception by in-vitro fertilization. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(6), 591-610.
Payne, N. (1997). The whole person fertility program. A revolutionary mind-body process to help you to conceive. New York: Three Rivers Press.
The Southern California Reproductive Medical Center (2001). Retrieved from http:// www.cainfertilitydoctors.com
Van Balen, F. (1998). Development of IVF children. Developmental Review, 18(1), 30-46.
Verny, T. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Dell Publishing.
Wesson, N. (1999). Enhancing fertility naturally: Holistic therapies for a successful pregnancy. New York: Inner Traditions Intl. Ltd.
Tara Maria A. Blasco, R.C.S.T. and Thomas R. Verny, M.D.
1 Tara Maria A. Blasco, R.C.S.T. (Registered Craniosacral Therapist) is a student/Ph.D. Candidate at the Santa Barbara Graduate Institute, Santa Barbara, California. Please address correspondence about this article to Ms. Blasco at: firstname.lastname@example.org; 1316 Clifton Street, Santa Barbara, California 93103; Phone: 805/8841157. Thomas R. Verny, M.D. is on the faculty of the Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology Program of the Santa Barbara Graduate Institute, Santa Barbara, California.