Factors Related to Maternal Violence: Longitudinal Research from Prenatal to Age Four
A mother's violent behavior toward her child is related to her psychological well-being. Mothers who were violent with their children had been raised by a mother with an inappropriate parenting attitude. Anxiety related to this attitude was also associated with violent maternal behavior. Mothers who demonstrated low level of attachment to their child from the fetus to 4 years of age engaged in violence toward their 4-year-old children. Maternal violence was also associated with decreased bonding with the baby during pregnancy. Comparisons of children of violent mothers with those of non-violent mothers showed that the former had significantly more frequent problem behaviors.
KEY WORDS: Maternal violence, prenatal, longitudinal study, attachment, mother-child relationship.
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Junko Tsujino, D. Educ. Psych, and Mayumi Oyama Higa, D. Eng.
Junko Tsujino, D. Educ. Psych, is a researcher at the Center for Information and Media Studies and Mayumi Oyama Higa, D. Eng. is a professor in the School of Humanities, both at Kwansei Gakuin University in Hyogo, Japan. Correspondence regarding this article should go to Junko Tsujino: firstname.lastname@example.org.